Oneida community after undergoing a religious

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Oneida Community…After undergoing a religious conversion, John Humphrey Noyes in 1848 started a cooperative community in Oneida, New York. Dedicated to an ideal of perfect social and economic equality, community members sharedproperty and comma later, marriage partners. Critics attacked the Oneida system of planned reproduction and communal child rearing as a simple experiment in “free love.” Despite the controversy, the community managed to prosper economically by producing and selling silverware of excellent quality. Fourier Phalanxes…In the 1840s, the theories of the French socialist Charles Fourier attracted the interest of many Americans. In response to the problems of a fiercely competitive society, Fourier advocated that people share work and housing in communities known as Fourier Phalanxes. This movement died out quickly as Americans proved too individualistic to live communally. “Equality, as understood by the American Founders, is the natural right of every individual to live freely under self-government, to acquire and retain the property he creates through his own labor, and to be treated impartially before a just law. Moreover, equality should not be confused with perfection, for man is also imperfect, making his application of equality, even in the most just society, imperfect…” Mark R. Levin, 2012Culture: Ideas, the Arts, and Literature Continued…Key Concepts & Main IdeasNotesA new national cultureemerged, with various Americans creating art, architecture, and literature that combined European forms with local and regional cultural sensibilities.Arts and Literature …The Democratic and reforming impulses of the Age of Jackson expressed themselves in painting, architecture, and literature. Painting…Genre painting - portraying the everyday life of ordinary people such as riding riverboats and voting on Election Day - became the Vogue of artists in the 1830s. For example, George Caleb Bingham depicted common people in various settings and carrying out domestic chores. William S Mount won popularity for his lively rural compositions. Thomas Cole and Frederic church emphasized the heroic beauty of American landscapes, especially in dramatic scenes along the Hudson River in New York state and the western frontier wilderness. The Hudson River school, as it was called, expressed the romantic ages fascination with the natural world. Architecture…Inspired by the democracy of classical Athens, American architects adapted Greek styles to glorify the Democratic spirit of the Republic. Columned facades like those of ancient Greek temples graced the entryways to public buildings, banks, hotels, and even some private homes. Literature…In addition to the transcendentalist authors (notably Emerson and Thoreau), other riders helped to create a literature that was distinctively American. Partly as a result of the War of 1812, the American people became more nationalistic and eager to read the works of American writers about American themes. Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper, for example, wrote fiction

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