In females resident bacteria change after puberty Lactobacilli predominates due

In females resident bacteria change after puberty

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In females resident bacteria change after puberty, Lactobacilli predominates due acid PH produced by this bacteria Increase vaginal PH enhance growth of candida( fungus ) causing thrush
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Advantages of Normal Flora Prevent colonization of pathogenic bacteria : Produce fatty acids in skin Produce toxic substances like bateriocin, colicin Accumulation of wastes Lack of O2 Acid PH in vagina Production of vitamins: Vitamin B, Vitamin K Stimulate immune system: Natural antibodies produced against normal flora anitgens will react with pathogenic organsisms Endotoxins activate complement system
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Disadvantages of Normal Flora Breaking the intact anatomical barriers will make normal flora inter sterile body sites and cause infections Overgrowth of pathogenic normal flora due to Antibiotic administration Changing in the PH of vagina or stomach Immune suppression conditions and ineffective immune system Improper sample collection may cause misidentification of normal flora as pathogens
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End of Chapter 44
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Hand Washing Chapter 52
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Semmelweis first who described the importance of hand washing to avoid transmission of infection Lister used carbolic acid to wash the hands before and after attending the patients.
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