Different types of anemia can be distinguished

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different types of anemia can be distinguished Hematocrit : Percent by volume of cellular elements in the blood Hemoglobin : amount of hemoglobin per unit volume of blood by the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) MCV indicates the oxygen-carrying capacity of the
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blood Reticulocyte: Assessment of bone marrow function Chemical analysis: Determines serum level of components such as iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, cholesterol, urea, glucose, ect Bleeding time: Measures platelet function Prothrombin time & Partial thromboplastin time: Measures function of various factors in coagulation process – INR is the standardized version Blood Therapies Whole blood, packed red blood cells, or packed platelets may be administered when severe anemia or thrombocytopenia develops Plasma or colloid volume-expanding solutions are used to maintain blood volume Artificial blood products are compatible with all blood types, however none of them can perform all complex functions of normal whole blood – currently undergoing clinical trials Epoetin Alfa is an artificial form of erythropoietin that is used before certain surgical procedures to stimulate RBC production and used for patients with anemia related to cancer or chronic renal failure Bone marrow transplants are used to treat some cancers, severe immune deficiency or severe blood diseases; a close tissue match needed to be successful. The Anemia’s: cause a reduction in oxygen transport in the blood leading to decreased hemoglobin Oxygen deficit leads to : Less energy production in all cells; cell metabolisms and reproduction are diminished Compensation mechanisms to improve the oxygen supply including tachycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction General signs of anemia- fatigue, pallor, dyspnea, and tachycardia Decreases regeneration of epithelial cells leading to the digestive tract becoming inflamed and ulcerated (leads to stomatitis), inflamed and cracked lips, dysphasia, and hair and skin showing degenerative changes Severe anemia may lead to angina or congestive heart failure Iron Deficiency Anemia: Insufficient iron impairs hemoglobin synthesis, therefore reducing the amount of oxygen transported in the blood Very common; it ranges from mild to severe, occurs in all age groups but more commonly in women (estimated 1 in 5 women are affected), the proportion is increased for pregnant women Frequently a sign of an underlying problem so it’s important to determine the specific cause of the deficit (etiology) Dietary intake below minimum requirement Chronic blood loss from a bleeding ulcer, hemorrhoids, cancer, ect Impaired duodenal absorption of iron- in many disorders including malabsorption syndromes
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Severe liver diseases may affect absorption as well as storage Signs and Symptoms: Fatigue, lethargy, cold intolerance, irritability Stomatitis and glossitis Menstrual irregularities Delayed healing Tachycardia, heart palpitations, dyspnea, syncope Pernicious Anemia
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  • Fall '11
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  • Bone marrow, blood cell levels

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