Food for the neonate the altricial to precocial

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Food for the neonate: The altricial to precocial spectrum affects the nutritional needs of the neonate and consequently the nutritional value of eggs, colostrums and milk. Altricial Precocial Taxa Insectivora, Scandentia, Carnovira, Myomorpha, Sciuromorpha Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, Proboscidea, Cetacea, Macroscelidia, Hydracoidea Developmental stage Eyes closed, no hair, no teeth, poor coordination, weak, poikliothermic, birth early in GI development Good vision, hair teeth, ability to walk, homothermic, more mature GI track Growth of neonate Rapid Slow Egg yolk for neonatal birds, fish and reptiles. Passerines Galliformes
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Milk for neonatal mammals must supply: Stage of development Embryogenesis Cytodifferentiation Maturation Weaning koala rat man zebra Marsupial Altricial Semi-altricial Precocial Nutrients ++++ +++ + + Digestive enzymes ++++ + - - Protective factors ++++ +++ + + Trophic factors ++++ ++ - - Homeostatic factors ++++ - - -
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2. Colostrum and milk are important in establishing intestinal microbial ecology Lactoferrin/low Fe Lysozyme Immunoglobulin IgA intestinal mucosal protection IgG systemic protection 3. Milk: perfect food except Fe
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Species % lipid in milk Horse 2 Cow 4 Human 5 Pig 9 Rat 10 Brown bear 10 Elephant 15 Sperm whale 16 Rabbit 18 Polar bear 32 Fur seal 53 Harp seal 58 Milk composition is extremely variable: Energy content and source; Protein content Constituent Time after parturition (d) 0 1 4 14 21 Fat 7.2 7.7 10.4 10 9.3 Protein 18.9 7.2 6.8 6.5 6.2 Lactose 2.5 3.7 4.6 4.7 4.8 Calcium 0.05 0.07 0.16 .2 .25 Changes in the composition of sow’s milk (% of raw milk)
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3. Variability in the amount and nutrient content of milk during lactation Milk supply Nutrient needs per day Weeks postpartum
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Requirement (% of diet) 1/3 2/3 1/2 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 Change in lysine requirement of mom to support fetal development and lactation Maintenance Gestation Lactation Fertilization Parturition Weaning Human, horse Dog, pig Cat
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4. Milk digestibility The milk clot: retention of protein and fat in stomach Rennet 5. Milk replacers Optimum replacers depends on the: state of development of the neonate nutrient density needs of neonate Commercial milk replacers provide a matrix of macronutrients permits matching nutrient profile to species permits matching nutrient profile to lactation curve 6. Colostrum replacers Based on cow IgG from plasma No growth factors
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NEONATAL & JUVENILE NUTRITION 1. Parturition: Time of major stresses Stresses come from: Exertion of muscles Trauma Sensational Stress response is an important cue: For the fetus/neonate to make metabolic, secretory, and motility changes necessary for switching from parenteral to enteral nutrition. For the nutritionally responsible parent (in mammals, the female)
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2. Weaning: Gradual process in Precocial (Stress is abnormal). Abrupt process in altricial (stress is helpful).
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