TCHNCLCM
Elements of an Argument.pdf

Now do you believe the claim warrant toulmins example

Info icon This preview shows pages 13–22. Sign up to view the full content.

Now, do you believe the claim? Warrant
Image of page 13

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Toulmin’s example illustrates that. . . Even a valid claim is not always obvious Audience matters – know your audience The strength of the augment relies on the collective strength of the warrants
Image of page 14
Supporting the claim Warrant : The warrant interprets the data and shows how it supports your claim. The warrant, in other words, explains why the data proves the claim.
Image of page 15

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Supporting the claim A good warrant will be a reasonable interpretation of facts; not make illogical interpretive leaps; not assume more than the evidence supports.
Image of page 16
Example: Responding to a job ad Needed: Mechanical engineering student intern for Summer 2018. Must have lab experience, working knowledge of Excel and LabView, the ability to work in a team environment, and strong communication skills. Based on this, two applicants sketch out qualifications…
Image of page 17

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Data: You need an engineering intern Claim: I’m the best qualified for this job. Warrants: (Who has the stronger argument? Why?) Applicant A Lab Experience: Safety training, Vg100 lab course; auto lab research assistant; lab documentation; machine operator Computer Skills: MS Office Suite, LabView, Matlab, C++, Python Teaming: Crew leader at work; seven design team projects (gives example) Communications: Written and oral technical reports in class; conversational Spanish Applicant B Lab Experience: Mandatory safety training; junior lab course Computer Skills: Basic computer skills including Excel and LabView Teaming: Worked on several projects with other team members Communications: Communicates well with others
Image of page 18
Inference Now let’s look at inference , the part of the warrant that allows us to make valid conclusions. The following materials, in whole or part, directly quoted or paraphrased, come from these sources: 1. Philosophy Terms, 2018, “Inference,” Philosophy Terms website http:// philosophyterms.com/inference/ 2. Wikipedia, 2018, “Proving a Negative,” Wikipedia website at https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burden_of_proof_ (philosophy)#Proving_a_negative] 3. Wikipedia, 2018, “List of Fallacies,” Wikipedia website at wiki/List_of_fallacies. 4. Philosophy Stack Exchange, “What is the difference between necessary and sufficient?” Philosophy Stack Exchange website at https:// philosophy.stackexchange.com/questions/22/what-is-the-difference-between- necessary-and-sufficient 5. J. Young, 2018, “Necessary and Sufficient Conditions,” Young’s webpage at http:// faculty.uncfsu.edu/jyoung/necessary_and_sufficient_conditions.htm.
Image of page 19

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

What is inference ? Definition : An inference is a process of drawing conclusions based on the evidence. On the basis of some evidence or a “premise,” you infer a conclusion. All three major philosophical traditions of the ancient world —China, India, and Greece — developed their own system and emphasized the importance of making good inferences.
Image of page 20
Examples of good inference Based on this premise… Weather forecast says 80% chance of thunderstorms There are over 40 million volumes in the university library
Image of page 21

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 22
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern