DE-Lecture02-Historical-background

The pole had a bucket at its end it is dipped into

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Romans, who spread the practice throughout Europe. The pole had a bucket at its end; it is dipped into the river bottom, filled with soil, raised and dumped into the ship’s hold. The dredge was poled to shore. (Technical Press Ltd, London).
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Herod’s Portus Caesarea in Palestine (circa 10 BC).
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In 42 AD, Emperor Claudius started the construction of a new artificial harbor (at left) just a few kilometers to the north of the older port Ostia Antica (at right). The new harbor was called Portus Augusti Ostiensis . Dredging created the new port.
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The Portus Augusti Ostiensis was completed in AD 46.
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Emperor Trajan (98-117 AD) enlarged and improved Portus; the two harbors together were called Portus Uterque (“which means “both ports").
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In 42 AD Claudius started the construction of an artificial harbor a few kilometers to the north of Ostia. There may have been a small, natural bay here. A huge basin was dredged out, protected by two curved moles and with a lighthouse. The maximum diameter of the basin was one kilometer. It was four to five meters deep. The amount of earth that had to be removed was tremendous: it has been calculated that for a period of 20 years 30,000 people and 1,000 teams of oxen must have been active. Two channels connected the basin with the Tiber. The northern channel later connected the harbors of Emperors Claudius and Trajan. The channels created an artificial island between Ostia and Portus, called Isola Sacra ("Sacred Island") in late antiquity. The harbor was called Portus Augusti Ostiensis or Portus Ostiensis. From the harbor the goods were taken to Rome in two ways. Smaller ships could reach Rome using their sails and oars. The cargo of large ships was unloaded at the harbors and reloaded into barges, which were towed to Rome by oxen. The two harbors together were called Portus Uterque (“both ports"). The urban settlement, a district of Ostia, was known as Portus. The Emperor Claudius completed Portus in 46 AD. The Goths (a Teutonic people) captured Portus in 593 AD. In the eighth century Trajan’s basin became inaccessible due to silt. In the ninth century there were invasions by the Saracens. These led to the foundation in 842 AD of the fortified settlement Gregoriopolis to the east of Ostia, by Pope Gregorius IV. Pope Leo IV (847-855 AD) restored the city wall of Portus. The Fossa Traiani was no longer navigable in the twelfth century.
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The Spoon-and-Bag dredge was still used in the Thames River in the 1960’s because it was cheap, albeit labor intensive. (Brown, Son & Ferguson, Scotland).
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The next improvement to dredging came from the Dutch by “plowing” the bottom of the river or bay. It was called a scrapper dredge
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