Http hyper text transfer protocol http takes care of

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HTTP - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol HTTP takes care of the communication between a web server and a web browser. HTTP is used for sending requests from a web client (a browser) to a web server, returning web content (web pages) from the server back to the client.
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HTTPS - Secure HTTP HTTPS takes care of secure communication between a web server and a web browser. HTTPS typically handles credit card transactions and other sensitive data. SSL - Secure Sockets Layer The SSL protocol is used for encryption of data for secure data transmission. SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol SMTP is used for transmission of e-mails. MIME - Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extensions The MIME protocol lets SMTP transmit multimedia files including voice, audio, and binary data across TCP/IP networks. IMAP - Internet Message Access Protocol IMAP is used for storing and retrieving e-mails. POP - Post Office Protocol POP is used for downloading e-mails from an e-mail server to a personal computer. FTP - File Transfer Protocol FTP takes care of transmission of files between computers. NTP - Network Time Protocol NTP is used to synchronize the time (the clock) between computers. DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol DHCP is used for allocation of dynamic IP addresses to computers in a network. SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol SNMP is used for administration of computer networks. LDAP - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol LDAP is used for collecting information about users and e-mail addresses from the internet. ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol ICMP takes care of error-handling in the network. ARP - Address Resolution Protocol ARP is used by IP to find the hardware address of a computer network card based on the IP address. RARP - Reverse Address Resolution Protocol RARP is used by IP to find the IP address based on the hardware address of a computer network card. BOOTP - Boot Protocol BOOTP is used for booting (starting) computers from the network. PPTP - Point to Point Tunneling Protocol PPTP is used for setting up a connection (tunnel) between private networks.
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So, the three default subnet masks are 255.0.0.0 for Class A, 255.255.0.0 for class B, and 255.255.255.0 for Class C. Note that while all default subnet masks use only “255” and “0”, not all subnet masks with “255” and “0” are defaults. There are a small number of custom subnets that divide on octet boundaries as well. These are: 255.255.0.0: ,This is the default mask for Class B, but can also be the custom subnet mask for dividing a Class A network using 8 bits for the subnet ID (leaving 16 bits for the host ID). 255.255.255.0: This is the default subnet mask for Class C, but can be a custom Class A with 16 bits for the subnet ID or a Class B with 8 bits for the subnet ID. ESSAY Why no hub? The reason why we don't use hubs as part of our network infrastructure is simple. Hubs rebroadcast all traffic on all ports. This adds lots of unnecessary broadcast traffic to the network, which creates congestion. Switches, on the other hand, route traffic intelligently, targeting only the ports with devices that need the information.
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