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B. Dancers 1) Ballet Dancers a. Hypertrophic changes of the osseous system observed in the growing ballet dancers are stable b. Hypertrophy of the tibia, femur and foot bones. c. In the foot - changes consist primarily of endosteal and periosteal hypertrophy in the second or third metacarpal diaphysis, with narrowing of the medullary canal.
3582) Modern Dancers a. All presented that foot has hallux valgus - related to the absence of forefoot support in the shoe, which joesnol occur in ballet. VI. TYPES/LEVELS/CLASSIFICATIONS A. Musculoskeletal and Neurologic Occupation of Musicians 1) Phalangeal and fractures and traumatic synovitis in guitar players. 2) Inflammatory disorders in tendons or joints such as tendonitis. 3) Carpal tunnel syndrome - common in musicians 4) Overuse syndrome 5) Scoliotic curvatures 6) Strength discrepancy 7) Abnormal laxity of one or more joints B. Technique and Training related injuries in ballet dancing 1) Hip Snapping or Clicking - most commonly affected is the iliacus muscle which is painful on flexion, abduction, and external rotation of the hip during the developed sep at the barre. - In landing from a leap, the dancer may cause snapping of the tensor fascia lata backward across the greater trochanter, permitting the pelvis to rotate forward into lordosis. - Symptoms are often exacerbated during performing a complex dance. 2) Tendinitis - Tendinitis of the origin of the hamstrings present with pain when landing from a leap and during other quick steps such as tours en t’air(turns in the air) 3) Avulsion - Avulsion or strain of the sartorius origin occurs primarily because of the take-off for a leap takes place with the knee in maximum extension and the limb in external rotation. - Any injury with a similar mechanism can occur in the hamstrings in runners and in the rectus femoris in sprinters. 4) Partial Avulsion - Partial avulsion of the vastus medialis muscle at the superior aspect of the patella occurs in dancers who are improperly trained. 5) Jumper's Knee - During jumping, the knee is snapped into extension. - If ligaments are taut, this could lead to stretching of the medial collateral ligament and capsule, and thereafter to jumper's syndrome and degenerative changes about the knee. - Laxity of the knee ligaments is seen in the late starters and especially in male dancers. 6) Retropatellar Irritation - Can happen when students are reportedly asked to pull up on their thighs to give the apperance of a mildly hyperextended knee. 7) Screwing the Knee - Occurs when the dancers attempt the V position, before being properly warmed up, in which the hips and feet are turned out and the lateral side of the foot lies against the medial side of the other. - The dancer would then assume a demiplie position (are half knee bend), allowing the 180 degrees positioning of the feet to be achieved first at the floor, and then straighten the knees without moving the feet.