Gender role a set of behaviour expectations norms for

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gender role= a set of behaviour expectations (norms) for males and females. foot-in-the-door phenomenon= the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to  comply later with a larger request. ther researchers have confirmed the foot-in-the-door phenomenon with altruistic behaviours. Patricia Pliner and her collaborators (1974) found 46 percent of Toronto suburbanites willing to  give to the Cancer Society when approached directly. Others, asked a day ahead to wear a lapel pin publicizing the drive (which all agreed to do), were nearly twice as likely to donate. Angela Lipsitz and others (1989) reported that ending blood-drive reminder calls with “We'll count  on seeing you then, OK? [pause for response]” increased the show-up rate from 62 to 81 percent. In Internet chat rooms, Paul Markey and his colleagues (2002) requested help (“I can't get my  email to work. Is there any way I can get you to send me an email?”). Help increased—from 2 to 16  percent—by including a smaller prior request (“I am new to this whole computer thing. Is there any  way you can tell me how to look at someone's profile?”). Nicols Gueguen and Celine Jacob (2001) tripled the rate of French Internet users contributing to  a child land-mine victims organization (from 1.6 to 4.9 percent) by first inviting them to sign a petition against land mines. low-ball technique= a tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an initial  request will often still comply when the requester ups the ante. People who receive only the costly request are less likely to comply with it.
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One theory is that our attitudes change because we are motivated to maintain consistency among our  cognitions. This is the implication of Leon Festinger's (1957)    cognitive dissonance theory . Dissonance theory predicts that when our actions are not fully explained by external rewards or coercion,  we will experience dissonance, which we can reduce by believing in what we have done. cognitive dissonance=: tension that arises when we are simultaneously aware of two inconsistent  cognitions. For example, dissonance may occur when we realize that we have, with little justification,  acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favouring one alternative despite reasons favouring  another. insufficient justification effect= reduction of dissonance by internally justifying one's behaviour when  external justification is “insufficient.” the smallest incentive that will get people to do something is usually  the most effective in getting them to like the activity and keep on doing it.
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