In Tajikistan, agriculture is the main source of living for an estimated 72 percent of the total population in the country. The sector contributed about 26 percent to the GDP and 35 percent to tax revenues in 2002. It is the second income source for foreign currencies (mostly from exports of cotton) after the aluminium
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Farhad Mirzaei , Olaf Heidelbach 292sector. Livestock production accounts for about 30 percent of total agricultural production. A large share of livestock production comes from private plots – 63 percent in 1994, compared to only 37 percent from state and collective farms. Since 1988, total livestock production has dropped by 35 percent. The sector faces a number of constraints: Deterioration of grazing land, insufficient supplies of medicine, fodder crops, minerals and vitamins; and weak animal husbandry management are some issues that limit growth. In Turkmenistan, agriculture is the main source of livelihood for an estimated 55 percent of the total population. The sector contributed about 27 percent to annual GDP in the last five years and is the second most important income source for foreign currencies (mostly resulting from exports of cotton) after the energy sector. In Uzbekistan, agriculture is a priority sector as it is still a major contributor to economic growth of the country. It provides about 30 percent to the GDP. More than half of the country's population (63 percent) live in rural areas, and are engaged in agriculture and related activities. Agriculture employs about 35 percent of the labor force of the country and is one of the main foreign exchange earners of the country. 5 CONCLUSIONSThree percent of world’s livestock products are produced in the ECO region, but 5.9 percent of the world’s population lives in this region. In all of the investigated countries, the agricultural sector plays an important role in both income generation and employment provision. The livestock sector has a significant, but in recent years decreasing, share in agricultural production, partly caused by the lowered export potential for most of the investigated countries as shown by the results of the RCA analysis. Low production and the resulting food insecurity may be overcome by enhancing the production of commodities with comparative advantage and promoting trade between ECO member countries by abandoning tariffs and quotas. From a methodological point of view, the RCA analysis provided a framework for describing changes in comparative advantage over time. Further analysis is necessary to determine the reasons that lead to the changes and draw more specific policy conclusions.