1700s or early 1800 (exact time is a matter of debate) in the western pprovinces. Their culture is noted for its blending of First Nations and French language and religious cereomonies.Canadien: A term used to described fur trade labourer – also known as voyageurs. This term was initially applied to French Canadians, but later became associated with those of mixed ancestry.Bois Brule: Was a term applied to the Métis before the term 'Métis' became an acceptable term. Means 'scorched wood.'English Halfbreed: Refers to people of British (usually Scottish), and First Nations (usually Cree or Ojibwe but not exclusively). The term 'English' refers to the language used and not to the cultural group. The term 'Halfbreed' is differentiated from 'halfbreed' as the first term refers to a group of people who developed a distinct culture a comprised of English and First Nations languages and Scottish and First Nations cultural practices, while 'halfbreed' is a derogatory term applied to any person of mixed European and First Nations ancestry. Due to the offensive connotation of 'halfbreed' many English Halfbreeds have elected to identify themselves as Metis.Country Born: A term used during the fur trade for English Halfbreeds. In recent years, some have used this term to replace English 'Halfbreed' by those who want to highlight the difference between them and the Metis.metis: The lower case 'm' indicates that this term is different from Métis with an upper case 'M.' The lower case metis is an synonym for mixed blood, mixed ancestry and halfbreed, though it is not meant as derogatory.Ethnogenesis of the MetisEthnogenesis refers to the recognition by a group of people who share similar cultural, linguistic, religious and economic backgrounds that they are a distinct nationor ethnic group. This notion is important to also understand the diversity of the Metis. The discussion below provides a brief survey of the ethnogenesis of the Métis.Predecessors to Great Lakes MetisThe French Fur Trade (early 1600s-1750) was highly regulated. The French required permits that described the amount of labourers and French goods a trader could use, and the amount of furs they could accumulate. The cost of the permits greatly limited ordinary French from participating. As a result of the permits, illegal traders emerged who traded their fur obtained from First Nations trappers on the black-market in Montreal. These 'outlaws' were call Courier du Bois(wood runners). They established semi-permanent communities in the Great Lakes region and were literally the fathers of the Metis.
IntermarriageThe Métis arose from early partnerships and intermarriages. Early economic relations and partnerships were established through social ties with a band. These ties were usually based on marriage with women of the band. Most First Nations groups would not enter into economic, political or military alliances until an individual or group assumed some sort of kinship connection either through adoption or marriage.New Culture?The First Nation groups that the Courier du Bois were linked to were primarily Algonquian, such as the Potawatomi, Fox, Sauk, and Ojibwe. By the 1750s, so many French men had become
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- Summer '16
- First Nations, Aboriginal Peoples, Cree, Metis