The crusades left a legacy of distrust between

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Chapter 18 / Exercise 4
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The Crusades left a legacy of distrust between Christians and Muslims that continues to the present. • simony • Gothic Urban II • Crusade • Saladin • Richard the Lion- Hearted • Reconquista • Inquisition 1 SETTING THE STAGE Some historians have called the period in Western Europe between 500 and 1000 a “dark age.” Magyars seeking plunder pushed up from the Danube River region. Vikings raided western European church monas- teries. These groups destroyed many of these centers of learning. Around the 900s, however, a new spirit invaded the church and brought about a spiritual revival in the clergy. Filled with new energy, the church began restructuring itself and started massive building programs to create new places of worship. The Age of Faith Monasteries led the spiritual revival. The monastery founded at Cluny in France in 910 was especially important. The reformers there wanted to return to the basic principles of the Christian religion. To do so, they established new religious orders. Influenced by the religious devotion and reverence for God shown by the new monasteries, the popes began to reform the Church. They restored and expanded its power and authority. A new age of religious feeling was born—the Age of Faith. Still, many problems troubled the Church. Problems in the Church Some priests were nearly illiterate and could barely read their prayers. Some of the popes were men of questionable morals. Many bish- ops and abbots cared more about their positions as feudal lords than about their duties as spiritual leaders. Reformers were most distressed by three main issues. • Many village priests married and had families. Such marriages were against Church rulings. • Bishops sold positions in the Church, a practice called simony (SY•muh•nee). • Using the practice of lay investiture, kings appointed church bishops. Church reformers believed the Church alone should appoint bishops. Reform and Church Organization Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory VII enforced Church laws against simony and the marriage of priests. The popes who followed Leo and Gregory reorganized the Church to continue the policy of reform. In the 1100s and 1200s, the Church was restructured to resemble a kingdom, with the pope at its head. The pope’s group of advisers was called the papal Curia. The Curia also acted as a court. It developed canon law (the law of the Church) on mat- ters such as marriage, divorce, and inheritance. The Curia also decided cases based Church Reform and the Crusades Following Chronological Order Use a time line to note important events in the Age of Faith. TAKING NOTES 900 1500
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Chapter 18 / Exercise 4
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380 Chapter 14 Evaluating Courses of Action How did the popes increase their power and authority? on these laws. Diplomats for the pope traveled through Europe dealing with bishops and kings. In this way the popes established their authority throughout Europe.

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