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50% probability of achieving a “B” and a 75% probability of achieving a “C” in
the student's first college mathematics course. Of the 47% of 2010 high school
graduates who took the ACT, only 43% met the cut-off score for mathematics
(ACT, 2010).
Bahr (2008a) argued that the amount of required remediation is crucial
when looking at student success after RM. Students who only require moderate
remediation in mathematics and are placed into Intermediate Algebra (i.e., the
equivalent of high school Algebra 2) have a 1 in 2 chance of successfully
completing the remediation process, whereas those placed into basic arithmetic
have a 1 in 15 chance of success (Bahr, 2008; 2010b).
Bahr (2007) also observed that the interaction of required remediation in
both mathematics and English is multiplicative, not merely additive. To remediate
successfully, a student must complete all referred developmental sequences in all
subjects, not just mathematics. Students who show an explicit English deficiency
are less likely to successfully remediate in mathematics (Bahr, 2010b).
Effect of race, ethnicity, or gender
. Blacks, Hispanics, and Native
Americans consistently score below Whites on all metrics beginning in
kindergarten and continuing through twelfth grade (Bali & Alvarez, 2003;
Braswell, Lutkus, et al., 2001; Fryer Jr & Levitt, 2004; 2006; Kao & Thompson,
2003; Riegle-Crumb, 2005; 2006). As they proceed through school, traditionally
disadvantaged groups take less rigorous mathematics courses (Finn, Gerber, &
Wang, 2002). The combined disadvantages of lower scores and less rigorous
courses compound each other, such that by twelfth grade less than a quarter of