Waycaster 2001 found similar levels of course completion but a far worse

Waycaster 2001 found similar levels of course

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required coursework, but only 68% of these received a “C” or better. Waycaster (2001) found similar levels of course completion, but a far worse percentage of students passing the course. In contrast, students who attend and complete RM get better grades and are more likely to finish college than those who were placed into RM but do not take the courses. Boylan and Saxon (1999) found that completers retain critical subject information better than both students who were placed into but did not take RM and students who were not placed into RM at all. These findings suggest that once placed into RM, it is in the best long-term interests of the student to complete the course sequence. High school grades and SAT scores seem logically related to a student’s placement and success in RM, yet this is not always the case. Higbee and Thomas (1999) found no significant correlation between HS grades or SAT scores and the score a student achieved in a RM course. Nonetheless, ACT Inc., developed a cutoff score for the ACT college entrance exam based on a student’s having a
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27 50% probability of achieving a “B” and a 75% probability of achieving a “C” in the student's first college mathematics course. Of the 47% of 2010 high school graduates who took the ACT, only 43% met the cut-off score for mathematics (ACT, 2010). Bahr (2008a) argued that the amount of required remediation is crucial when looking at student success after RM. Students who only require moderate remediation in mathematics and are placed into Intermediate Algebra (i.e., the equivalent of high school Algebra 2) have a 1 in 2 chance of successfully completing the remediation process, whereas those placed into basic arithmetic have a 1 in 15 chance of success (Bahr, 2008; 2010b). Bahr (2007) also observed that the interaction of required remediation in both mathematics and English is multiplicative, not merely additive. To remediate successfully, a student must complete all referred developmental sequences in all subjects, not just mathematics. Students who show an explicit English deficiency are less likely to successfully remediate in mathematics (Bahr, 2010b). Effect of race, ethnicity, or gender . Blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans consistently score below Whites on all metrics beginning in kindergarten and continuing through twelfth grade (Bali & Alvarez, 2003; Braswell, Lutkus, et al., 2001; Fryer Jr & Levitt, 2004; 2006; Kao & Thompson, 2003; Riegle-Crumb, 2005; 2006). As they proceed through school, traditionally disadvantaged groups take less rigorous mathematics courses (Finn, Gerber, & Wang, 2002). The combined disadvantages of lower scores and less rigorous courses compound each other, such that by twelfth grade less than a quarter of
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28 Blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans are prepared for college-level mathematics (Rose & Betts, 2001). As a result, a disproportionate number of these students are placed into RM once they reach college (Adelman, 2004a; Bahr, 2010a; Walker & Plata, 2000). ACT (2010) found that only 13% of Blacks, 26% of American Indians/Alaska natives, and 27% of Hispanic students were college-ready in mathematics, compared with 52% of Whites and 68% of Asians,
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  • MarciaTurner-Edwards
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