In 1999 salesforcecom was established by marc benioff

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although most of the focus at that time was limited to SaaS. In 1999, Salesforce.com was established by Marc Benioff, Parker Harris, and their associates. They applied many technologies developed by companies such as Google and Yahoo! to business applications. They also provided the concept of "On demand" and SaaS with their real business and successful customers. The key for SaaS is that it is customizable by customers with limited technical support required. Business users have enthusiastically welcomed the resulting flexibility and speed. In the early 2000s, Microsoft extended the concept of SaaS through the development of web services. IBM detailed these concepts in 2001 in the Autonomic Computing Manifesto ( ) , which described advanced automation techniques such as self-monitoring, self-healing, self-configuring, and self-optimizing in the management of complex IT systems with heterogeneous storage, servers, applications, networks, security mechanisms, and other system elements that can be virtualized across an enterprise. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers after the dot-com bubble which, like most computer networks, were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time just to leave room for occasional spikes. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby, small, fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and easier, Amazon started providing access to their systems through Amazon Web Services on a utility computing basis in 2005. [25] In 2007, Google, IBM, and a number of universities embarked on a large scale cloud computing research project. [26] By mid-2008, Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services, those who use IT services and those who sell them", [27] and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing ... will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and in significant reductions in other areas." [28] Criticism and disadvantages Because cloud computing does not allow users to physically possess the storage of their data (the exception being the possibility that data can be backed up to a user-owned storage device, such as a USB flash drive or hard disk), it does leave responsibility of data storage and control in the hands of the provider. Responsibility for backup data, disaster recovery and other static "snapshots" has been a long-standing concern for both outsourced as well as resident IT systems. Additional issues are Page 4 of 15 Cloud computing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 9/15/2009
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raised around process (methods, functions, transactions, etc.) visibility and transportability given the more complex nature of cloud and web service systems. Organizations that rely upon these systems and services now have to consider the additional responsibility to be able to understand the services
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  • Spring '12
  • GwangS.Jung

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