Chemistry_Grade_10-12 (1).pdf

Interesting fact erest fact polyester is not just a

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Interesting Fact erest Fact Polyester is not just a textile. Polyethylene terephthalate is in fact a plastic which can also be used to make plastic drink bottles. Many drink bottles are recycled by being reheated and turned into polyester fibres. This type of recycling helps to reduce disposal problems. 2. Nylon Nylon was the first polymer to be commercially successful. Nylon replaced silk, and was used to make parachutes during World War 2. Nylon is very strong and resistant, and is used in fishing line, shoes, toothbrush bristles, guitar strings and machine parts to name 188
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CHAPTER 10. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES - GRADE 12 10.2 just a few. Nylon is formed from the reaction of an amine (1,6-diaminohexane) and an acid monomer (adipic acid) (figure 10.5). The bond that forms between the two monomers is called an amide linkage . An amide linkage forms between a nitrogen atom in the amine monomer and the carbonyl group in the carboxylic acid. (a) H N (CH 2 ) 4 H N H H + HO C O (CH 2 ) 4 C O OH H 2 O molecule is lost (b) H N (CH 2 ) 4 H N H C O (CH 2 ) 4 C O OH amide linkage Figure 10.5: An amine and an acid monomer (a) combine to form a section of a nylon polymer (b). Interesting Fact erest Fact Nylon was first introduced around 1939 and was in high demand to make stock- ings. However, as World War 2 progressed, nylon was used more and more to make parachutes, and so stockings became more difficult to buy. After the war, when manufacturers were able to shift their focus from parachutes back to stock- ings, a number of riots took place as women queued to get stockings. In one of the worst disturbances, 40 000 women queued up for 13 000 pairs of stockings, which led to fights breaking out! Exercise: Polymers 1. The following monomer is a reactant in a polymerisation reaction: C H H C CH 3 CH 3 (a) What is the IUPAC name of this monomer? (b) Give the structural formula of the polymer that is formed in this polymeri- sation reaction. (c) Is the reaction an addition or condensation reaction? 189
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10.3 CHAPTER 10. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES - GRADE 12 2. The polymer below is the product of a polymerisation reaction. C H H C Cl H C H H C Cl H C H H C Cl H (a) Give the structural formula of the monomer in this polymer. (b) What is the name of the monomer? (c) Draw the abbreviated structural formula for the polymer. (d) Has this polymer been formed through an addition or condensation poly- merisation reaction? 3. A condensation reaction takes place between methanol and methanoic acid. (a) Give the structural formula for... i. methanol ii. methanoic acid iii. the product of the reaction (b) What is the name of the product? (Hint: The product is an ester) 10.3 The chemical properties of polymers The attractive forces between polymer chains play a large part in determining a polymer’s proper- ties. Because polymer chains are so long, these interchain forces are very important. It is usually the side groups on the polymer that determine what types of intermolecular forces will exist.
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