8. Shakers, the Fourierists, and Noyes attempted to live their lives in what they conceived of as a more egalitarian social order and left their counter- cultural blueprints to posterity. B. Joseph Smith and the Mormon Experience 1. Joseph Smith A. Mormons aroused more hostility because they were more cohesive and successfully attracted thousands of members. B. Mormonism emerged from the religious fervor in New England during the Second Great Awakening. C. Founder Joseph Smith believed God had singled him out to receive a special revelation of divine truth—The Book of Mormon. D. Smith organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; affirmed traditional patriarchal authority; encouraged hard work, saving of earnings, and entrepreneurship; and started a church-directed community intended to inspire moral perfection. E. Mormons eventually settled in Nauvoo, Illinois, and became the largest utopian community in America. F. Resentment toward the Mormons turned to overt hostility when Smith refused to abide by some Illinois laws, asked that Nauvoo be turned into a separate federal territory, and then declared himself a candidate for president. G. Smith believed in polygamy H. 1844, Smith was murdered in jail after being arrested for trying to create Mormon colony in Mexico. 2. Brigham Young and Utah
Why did some Mormons not support Polygamy? Who was President James Buchanan? What did the Utopian reformers organize? What was the new Urban Growth? Seneca Falls Convention 1. Led by Brigham Young, the Mormons settled in the Great Salt Lake Valley and spread planned agricultural communities across present-day Utah (then part of Mexico). 2. Mormons who did not support polygamy remained in the United States; led by Smith’s son, they formed the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 3. Congress established the Utah Territory in 1850 and named Brigham Young its governor. Young and the territorial legislature resisted federal law to maintain autonomy of the church. 4. President James Buchanan was afraid that if he tried to eliminate polygamy it might set a precedent that could be used to end slavery, he sent a small army to Utah contributing to the short-lived “Mormon War.” 5. Mormons in Utah and the Midwest succeeded because they reinvigorated the patriarchal family, endorsed private ownership of property, and accepted the entrepreneurial spirit of a market economy. C. Urban Popular Culture 1. Sex in the City 1. Utopian reformers organized new communities on the land, rural migrants and foreign immigrants created a new culture in the cities. 2. 1800-1840, America experienced a high rate of urban growth. 1860, New York numbered over 1 million residents. 3. Urban growth generated a new urban culture as young men and women adjusted to a life of hard work. 4. Young working-class laborers, domestic servants, and factory operatives engaged in commercialized sex and serial monogamy while dressing in the latest fashion style, such as the “B’hoy” and the “Bowery Gal.” 1848; gathering of women's rights activists in Seneca Falls New York; organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton 2. Minstrelsy A.
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