Countercurrent multiplication a Countercurrent exchange occurs between fluids

Countercurrent multiplication a countercurrent

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Countercurrent multiplication:
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F. 26-16
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Transport maximum (T m ) – If nutrient concentrations rise in tubular fluid: Reabsorption rates increase until carrier proteins are saturated. It reaches the transport maximum. Renal Threshold : Is the plasma concentration at which a specific compound or ion begins to appear in urine.
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Renal Threshold for Glucose Is approximately 180 mg/dL If plasma glucose is greater than 180 mg/dL: • T m of renal tubular cells is exceeded Glucose appears in urine Glycosuria
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Clinic terms: 1. Proteinuria: protein in urine. 2. Hematuria: blood cells in urine 3. Glucosuria: glucose in urine Diuretics : (water pills) drugs that increase the loss of water in urine to decrease blood volume, blood pressure and edema. (side effects of high dose: dehydration, cardiac arrest)
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Ureters: 1. Extend from renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. 2. Move the urine by peristalsis of smooth muscles. Urinary Bladder: 1. Supported by middle & lateral ligaments (derived from 2 umbilical arteries of fetal). 2. Rugae: folds of mucosa lining in the inner wall 3. Very thick muscularis layer called “ detrusor muscles ”. 4. Trigone: act as a funnel 5. Internal urethral sphincter (smooth m.): involuntary, by parasympathetic n. 6. External urethral sphincter (skeletal m): voluntary control.
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F. 26-19a
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Ureters: (Transitional epithelium) 1. Extend from renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. 2. Move the urine by peristalsis of smooth muscles. Urinary Bladder: (Transitional epithelium) 1. Supported by middle & lateral umbilical ligaments (derived from 2 umbilical arteries of fetal). 2. Rugae: folds of mucosa lining in the inner wall 3. Very thick muscularis layer called “ detrusor muscles ”. 4. Trigone : act as a funnel 5. Internal urethral sphincter (smooth m.): involuntary, by parasympathetic n. 6. External urethral sphincter (skeletal m): voluntary control.
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Fetus: Umbilical artery F. 26-18c
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. F.26-19b
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Urination (micturition Reflex): 1. Stretch receptors in the wall of bladder. 2. Afferent & efferent reflex (in the spinal cord) 3. Thalamus and cerebral cortex (voluntary control) ** Incontinence: inability to control urination due to damage of internal or external urethral sphincter, pelvic nerve, spinal cord, CNS or prostate gland.
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F. 26-20
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*** The greater the Specific Gravity the higher concentration of urine.
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Dialysis : treatment for chronic renal failure
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Pyelogram : (pyelo- = kidney) An image of the renal system by i.v. injection of dye and an X-ray. Renal obstruction: 1. Casts : solid fragments of blood clots, epithelium, lipids and other materials. Small amount of casts is normal and they can be eliminated in urine.
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