Proposition is true simply on the basis that it has

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proposition is true simply on the basis that it has not been proved false, or that it is false because it  has not been proved true.   Arguments of this nature are fallacious because our ignorance of how to prove or d isp rove a  proposition clearly does not establish either the truth or falsehood of that proposition.   This fallacy often arises in connection with such matters as psychic phenomena, telepathy, where  there is no clear-cut evidence either for or against.
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5. Argumentum ad Baculum (appeal to force) This is a fallacy committed when one appeals to force or the threat of force to cause acceptance of a conclusion. It is usually resulted to when evidence or rational arguments fail. It is epitomized in the  saying “might is right.” The use and threat of “strong-arm” methods to coerce political opponents  provides a good contemporary example of this fallacy.   On the international scale, the argumentum ad baculum means war or the threat of war by superior  powers to silence the weaker or growing nations. For example, threats by super powers to invade  growing nations over certain issues such as harbouring terrorism as a an excuse is a good example  of  argumentum ad baculum . 6. Argumentum ad hominen (abusive)    This fallacy translates literally as “argument directed to the person.” It is susceptible to two  interpretations, first, as abusive variety. It is committed when, instead of trying to d isp rove the truth of what is asserted, one attacks the  person who made the assertion. For example, when it is argued that tribe   X  in Kenya is naturally of  thieves since a number of the people from it are implicated with theft is to commit  argumentum ad  hominen  fallacy. The argument is fallacious because the personal character of particular individuals is logically  irrelevant to the collective nature of ethnic group   X . To argue that proposals are bad or assertions false because they are proposed or asserted by a  particular community or individual is to argue fallaciously and to be guilty of committing  an  argumentum ad hominem . This kind of argument is sometimes said to commit the “genetic  fallacy,” for obvious reasons. The way in which this irrelevant argument may sometimes persuade is through the psychological  process of transference especially where an attitude of disapproval towards a person is evoked.
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