Two out of five total lessons were observed in this classroom. Mrs. Mwongo, who instructs Class 1, attended teacher training college for primary school pupils. She has recently earned teaching certification and diploma in special education and is currently pursuing a university-level degree in special education. Mrs. Mwongo has been teaching for 18 years. Class 2.The latter second-grade classroom selected for participation had thirty-six pupils, with about 53% of the student population being male. The age range of the students was between seven to eleven years old. The students’ L1 include Chinyanja, Bemba, and English. The time spent on literacy was roughly the same compared to the time allocated per day as noted above. Three out of five total lessons were observed in this classroom. Mrs. Zulu is the instructor for the second Grade 2 school site described above.She attended teacher training college and earned her teaching certificate for primary school. Mrs. Zulu has been teaching for a total of 12 years. Both classrooms at the Zambian site were situated within smaller buildings spread across the school grounds which encompassed the school. Each of these buildings contained two larger classrooms and a storage space shared by teachers utilizing those classrooms. The classroom door led outside to the expansive courtyard, where students congregated and played between classes. Windows lined two walls of the classroom, enabling natural light to stream in as the primary light source. Long rectangular tables with bench-style seating were located in the back, stretching toward the middle of the room. The teacher’s desk and chalkboard were at the front of the room, with an open space of about ten feet between the desks and chalkboard. The primary difference observed between Mrs. Mwongo’s and Mrs. Zulu’s classrooms was that Mrs. Zulu had posted student groupings on chart paper hanging above the tables. In both classrooms, the students were generally quiet with eyes forward during whole group instruction. Often, students would answer a teacher’s question chorally. The use of electronic technology was not observed at the Zambian site. 41
THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LITERACIES Project Design and Data Collection Data were collected using coded observation with field notes. Participants were observed teaching lessons as they typically would across English, mathematics, and social studies. These lessons did not have to be limited to reading or literacy, as vocabulary is inherent to every subject. The researcher explained to participants that the focus was on vocabulary instruction, though field notes taken would be on the entire lesson. The final coding scheme shown in Table 2 below was developed from the accompanying body of research above. This scheme was utilized to identify particular vocabulary teaching actions performed by participants.