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town but were under artillery fire and attack from front and rear. The Americans occupied the houses and shot down the German gunners and foot soldiers during which Colonel Rahl was fatally wounded. Rahl’s troops retreated to an orchard in the South East of the town where they surrendered. Ewing and Cadwallader failed to make the river crossing and took no part in the attack. Casualties: The Americans suffered 4 wounded casualties. It is said that in addition two American soldiers froze to death. The Hessians suffered 20 killed and around 100 wounded. 1,000 were captured.”The Battle of Trenton. (2012). Retrieved from dominance achieved by the British in the preceding year overturned. Howe was stunned that a strong German contingent could be surprised in such a manner and put up so little resistance. Washington’s constant problem was to maintain the enthusiasm of his army for the war, particularly with the system of one year recruitment and Trenton proved a much needed encouragement.SaratogaAccording to "The Battle Of Saratoga 1777" (2012), “Over the winter of 1776/7 the British Government in London devised a plan to send a strong army down the Lake Champlain route from Canada into the heart of the rebellious American Colonies, isolating New England. The British Governor of Canada, Sir Guy Carleton, with his experience of campaigning in North America would have been a sound appointment for this command, particularly after his determined and resourceful defense of Casualties: Of the 7,000 British and Germans who marched from Canada only 3,500 were fit for duty at the surrender. The consequences of Burgoyne’s surrender were catastrophic. France and Spain declared war on Britain and the American effort
Appendix CHIS/115 Version 310Canada in 1775 and 1776. Instead Lord Germaine, the minister in London with direct control of the British war policy, persuaded King George III to appoint Major General John Burgoyne (known to the troops as “Gentleman Johnnie”), Carleton’s subordinate during 1776. Burgoyne had taken the precaution of returning to London during the winter and lobbied for the command. In order to obtain additional supplies, and horses for his Brunswick dragoon regiment, Burgoyne sent the German, Colonel Baum, with 500 men on a raid to Bennington, New Hampshire. Simultaneously Burgoyne moved his army down the Hudson River to Saratoga, where he built a substantial fortified camp. Baum’s force was attacked by American militia and overwhelmed. A relieving force commanded by Colonel Breymann was repelled with some loss. St Leger found that difficulties with his Indian allies and the vigorous resistance of Brigadier Benedict Arnold forced him to abandon his advance down the Mohawk River. Burgoyne was in a perilous position. The presence of his army was arousing the local militia in substantial numbers. He was perilously short of food. His imperative orders to march south restrained him from remaining where he was, retreating northwards or diverting to the East. It took until 13th September 1777 to assemble sufficient supplies, dragged through the forests down rudimentary roads, to continue the advance. On