MANNING_STRATEGIES_IN_GREEK-OWNED_SHIPPI.pdf

The performance of shipping operators is affected by

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seafarers themselves, have a dependent and conditional relationship with the agents. The performance of shipping operators is affected by the seafaring manpower provided by the agents. Manning agencies offer several kinds of services to both individual sailors and shipping companies. On the one hand, they may offer one or more of the below mentioned services to ship operators: (a) Crewing services, which include the selection and casting of seafarers from one or more regions, according to the requirements of the co-operating ship operator; (b) Documentation services, which include all the related activities regarding the seafarers’ certificates and documentation for employment, on-time travelling on ship; (c) Support services, such as incorporation of seafarers, remittance, resolution of problems and differences, and others; (d) Informational services, which include information of the operators regarding factors affecting the supply and demand of seagoing labour market. On the other hand, manning agencies assist individual sailors by offering one or more of the below mentioned services: (a) Informational services, which include information regarding the offered places in the market, description and reliability of the potential employer, legal support and clarification regarding the contracts; (b) Support services to seafarers and families, such as traveling on ship, certifications and documentation, training, and contact with family, remittances and information in emergency cases; (c) Career services, which include a stable relationship, future recruitment, contractual support, and others. There is a large proportion of scholars and organisations that examine manning agencies and the role that they play in the seagoing labour supply system. As Cooper (2000) mentions, the instability of the industry is strongly affected by the role of agents, since manning agencies create a working environment, which promotes insecurity, stress and poor motivation among seafarers. The quality of the offered services by a certain percentage of manning agencies has been questioned several times, this owed to the fact that very often agents are involved in the recruitment of seafarers with fraudulent and falsified certificates. Rubullah (2003) also mentions that manning agencies have been involved in several cases of employment of seafarers on substandard ships and abandonment of seafarers in foreign ports. Wu (2004) and Amante (2004) have discussed the illegal activities of several manning agencies in China and the Philippines. We could then speak of the substandard agents, those that 8
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are offering services such as falsification of seafarers’ certifications, employment under illegal charges, ‘watch’- and ‘black-listing’ of seafarers. The problematic and illegal in many cases, operation of several manning agencies is part of the clouded and dark side of shipping, which exists along with the substandard ship operators and substandard ships. Recognizing the issue, ILO (2002) supports that manning agencies should be supervised and prohibited from using means, mechanisms or lists intended to prevent or deter seafarers from gaining employment. Also it supports the idea that
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