A failure of front to rear COMMUNICATION People at the rear of the crowd exert

A failure of front to rear communication people at

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A failure of front-to-rear COMMUNICATION —People at the rear of the crowd exert strong physical or psychological pressure to advance toward the goal. Social Movements A social movement is an ORGANIZED social group that acts with continuity and coordination to promote or resist change in society or other social units. Social movements are the most organized FORM of collective behavior, and they tend to be the most sustained. They often have a CONNECTION to the past, and they tend to become organized in coherent social organizations. A social movement is a COLLECTIVE effort to bring about social change and establish a new order of SOCIAL thought and action. They begin during periods of unrest and DISSATISFACTION with some ASPECT of society. Initially, social movements are POORLY organized. As they develop, they acquire an established LEADERSHIP, a body of customs and traditions, divisions of labor, social rules and VALUES, and new ways of THINKING. Social movements can be the basis of REVOLUTIONARY change. Some movements originating in one nation also spill over to affect movements in ANOTHER. Transnational social movements have organizational structures that cross NATIONAL borders. Some of the most profound CHANGES in the United States were the result of social movements from our diverse population. Types of Social Movements: ALTERNATIVE: Seeks to alter only some specific aspect of people. E.g., The Temperance Movement (1900)— trying to get people to stop drinking alcohol.
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REDEMPTIVE: Seeks to change people totally. E.g., Christianity’s evangelism and discipleship efforts. REFORMATIVE: Seeks to change some specific aspect of the whole society. E.g., SPCA—seeks to change every one’s thinking on the treatment of animals. TRANSFORMATIVE: Seeks to change the whole society totally. E.g., Revolutions (I.e., Cuba). TRANSNATIONAL: The emphasis is on some condition around the world (Global). E.g., Global warming. METAFORMATIVE: The goal is to change the social order around the entire world. E.g., Radical Islamic Fundamentalism. Types of Social Movements (More): TURNER AND KILLIAN (1987) organize social movements in terms of their orientation: VALUE-ORIENTED Movements—E.g., The civil rights and women’s liberation movements. POWER-ORIENTED Movements—E.g., The Nazi movement in Germany and the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. PARTICIPANT-ORIENTED_ Movements—E.g., Back-to-nature and evangelical movements. Membership Types In Social Movements The Development and Life Cycle of Social Movements: According to Blumer (1939) Social movements often evolve through stages: 1) SOCIAL UNREST: involves unfocused restlessness and increasing disorder.
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2) POPULAR EXCITEMENT: unrest is brought into the open: people establish rapport with one another and begin to adopt a collective identity; leaders emerge and offer a vision.
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