• A failure of front-to-rear COMMUNICATION —People at the rear of the crowd exert strong physical or psychological pressure to advance toward the goal. Social Movements • A social movement is an ORGANIZED social group that acts with continuity and coordination to promote or resist change in society or other social units. • Social movements are the most organized FORM of collective behavior, and they tend to be the most sustained. • They often have a CONNECTION to the past, and they tend to become organized in coherent social organizations. • A social movement is a COLLECTIVE effort to bring about social change and establish a new order of SOCIAL thought and action. • They begin during periods of unrest and DISSATISFACTION with some ASPECT of society. • Initially, social movements are POORLY organized. As they develop, they acquire an established LEADERSHIP, a body of customs and traditions, divisions of labor, social rules and VALUES, and new ways of THINKING. • Social movements can be the basis of REVOLUTIONARY change. • Some movements originating in one nation also spill over to affect movements in ANOTHER. • Transnational social movements have organizational structures that cross NATIONAL borders. • Some of the most profound CHANGES in the United States were the result of social movements from our diverse population. Types of Social Movements: • ALTERNATIVE: Seeks to alter only some specific aspect of people. E.g., The Temperance Movement (1900)— trying to get people to stop drinking alcohol.
• REDEMPTIVE: Seeks to change people totally. E.g., Christianity’s evangelism and discipleship efforts. • REFORMATIVE: Seeks to change some specific aspect of the whole society. E.g., SPCA—seeks to change every one’s thinking on the treatment of animals. • TRANSFORMATIVE: Seeks to change the whole society totally. E.g., Revolutions (I.e., Cuba). • TRANSNATIONAL: The emphasis is on some condition around the world (Global). E.g., Global warming. • METAFORMATIVE: The goal is to change the social order around the entire world. E.g., Radical Islamic Fundamentalism. Types of Social Movements (More): TURNER AND KILLIAN (1987) organize social movements in terms of their orientation: • VALUE-ORIENTED Movements—E.g., The civil rights and women’s liberation movements. • POWER-ORIENTED Movements—E.g., The Nazi movement in Germany and the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. • PARTICIPANT-ORIENTED_ Movements—E.g., Back-to-nature and evangelical movements. Membership Types In Social Movements The Development and Life Cycle of Social Movements: According to Blumer (1939) Social movements often evolve through stages: 1) SOCIAL UNREST: involves unfocused restlessness and increasing disorder.
2) POPULAR EXCITEMENT: unrest is brought into the open: people establish rapport with one another and begin to adopt a collective identity; leaders emerge and offer a vision.
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