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Hindrance stressors STRONGNEGATIVE effect on organizational commitment. (.5mag)High hindrance stressors have low levels of AFFECTIVE commitment & NORMATIVE commitment. Hindrance stressors evoke strains, which are dissatisfying. Satisfaction has a strong impact on the degree people feel committed to their organization. People who feelsick & exhausted because of work will be dissatisfied with their jobs & feel less desire to stay in organization . (Relationship with continuance commitment is weaker).Challenge stressors WEAK POSITIVE effect on job performance. (.1)High challenge have high task performanceNot much known about impact of challenge stressors on citizenship & counterproductive behaviors. The net benefit of the trigger positive emotions & challenge, focused coping strategies of employees highly engaged in their jobs outweigh the strain. Thus, it benefits employee performance & commitment. Positive effect seen in executives, lower level employees & students. NOTE: high levels of challenge stressors may have negative consequences that become apparent over long term...Challenge stressors cause strain, which can result in illness, but because these employees tend to be more satisfied, committed & engaged, they come to work anyway. This is known as PRESENTEEISM. Cans result in prolonged or spreading illness, & downward health spiral. **reductions in productivity that result from presenteeism is larger than reduction from absenteeism.Challenge stressors have a MODERATEPOSITIVE effect on organizational commitment. (.3)High challenge have high levels of Affective commitment & Normative commitment. (Continuance commitment weaker relationship)Application: Stress ManagementBecause of the high costs associated with employee stress, organizations assess & manage stress using a number of different practices. In general, these practices focus on reducing or eliminating stressors, providing resources that employees can use to cope with stressors or trying to reduce the strainsAssessment– Stress audit– Managers ask questions about the nature f the jobs in their organization to estimate whether high stress levels may be a problemReducing stressors – Organizations could try to eliminate or significantly reduce stressful demands.Sabbaticalgives employees the opportunity to take time off from work to engage in alternate activitiesProviding resources– Training interventions – aimed at increasing job related competencies & skillsSupportive practices – help employees manage & balance the demands that exist in the different roles Reduce strains- Relaxation techniques, Cognitive- behavioral techniques, Health & wellness programsAccording to transactional theory of stress, after initial appraisal of a stressful demand, Secondary appraisal= people ask themselves “what should I do” or “what can I do”? How to cope with various stressors
Coping– the behaviors & thoughts people use to manage stressful demands & associated emotions to stress Behavioral coping– METHOD