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In view of this theory, it can be argued that domestic violence results from relative perception (of the perpetrator) of rewards and cost (Gelles, 1983). In this case, perpetrators of domestic violence do so or are more inclined to do so when they believe that doing so will benefit him/her (Gelles, 1983). The commonest benefit could be emotional wellbeing. This means that people who perpetrate domestic violence are mostly those who have emotional problems. Otherwise they desire to punish the victim. The perpetrators of domestic violence are also more likely to do so in cases where the chances of being reported are slim (Herrenkohl, Sousa, Tajima, Herrenkohl & Moylan, 2008.
Archer’s (2006) study sought to investigate cross-cultural differences in physical aggression between partners. One of the major findings was that greater empowerment of womenwas likely to result in lesser chances of their getting battered or abused by their partners. This in effect means that their partners’ ability or capacity to commit these crimes is reduced as the cost is higher. In line with Gelles’s (1983) argument, the partners fail or less likely to abuse their partner because they cannot do so. In the study, cross-national studies were conducted including an unspecified number of women and men (Archer, 2006). 52 countries were covered and 3 different indices of women victimization used. It was found generally that in nations where gender empowerment (as determined by the level of women participation in society), the reported incidents of domestic violence were lower than in those nations where gender-specific empowerment was lower (Archer, 2006). Empowerment was concluded to be a major deterrent of aggression from partners of the concerned persons (Archer, 2006). A key difference in this study is that it investigated domestic violence committed by both males and females. As such, empowerment was considered for both genders even though women empowerment was given priority in non-Western societies (Archer, 2006). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy among the Hispanic WomenTreatment for PTSD is helping deal with the traumatic event and learning new coping skills. By exploring through one’s feelings and emotions about the trauma can address any issuesof guilt and self-blame. The first stage in reducing PTSD is to confront the traumatic event instead of avoiding it. Instead of repressing a child’s emotions he or she are encourage to recall the major event and restore their sense of power and that control over his or her emotions. The
two most effective treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder are cognitive behavioral therapy and family counseling. Smith (2011), family therapy can help your loved ones understand what you’re going through and communicate more effectively and work through the troubled relationship that is the contributor to occurrence of the PTSD symptoms Smith (2011). Cognitivebehavioral therapy exposes a child’s outlook and conditions that remind him or her of the trauma.