is a line 100 mm in length with right-angle stops at each end. Bipolar anchors are placed beyond each end of the line.DIF:Cognitive Level: ApplicationREF:Page 43312.Why is the visual analogue scale (VAS) used so frequently in health care research? (Select all that apply.)a.Validity is the same, regardless of how the visual analogue scale is used.b.It elicits nominal-level data.
c.It is easy for clients to understand.It is more sensitive to small changes than are numerical and rating scales.e.It requires a minimum of translation to be used in languages other than English.f.It is easy to administer and score.ANS:C, D, E, Fd.The visual analog scale (VAS) is a magnitude scale particularly useful in scaling stimuli. Measured stimuli must be defined in a way that the subject clearly understands. Only one major cue should appear for each scale. The scale is a line 100 mm in length with right-angle stops at each end. Bipolar anchors are placed beyond each end of the line. The VAS is frequently used in health care research since it is easy to construct, administer, and score. The VAS is more sensitive to small changes than numerical and rating scales are and can discriminate between two dimensions of pain. Validity of the VAS has most commonly been determined by comparing the VAS scores with other measures of a concept. For example, Winkelman, Norma, Maloney, and Kless (2008) compared VAS scores with dermatome assessment in measuring pain during labor. The following study excerpt describes the agreement between these two measures of pain in laboring women who received an epidural analgesia.DIF:Cognitive Level: AnalysisREF:Page 43413.Why might a researcher use a structured interview rather than an unstructured one? (Select all that apply.)Interview time is limited.Structured interviews are verbal interactions with subjects that allow the researcher to exercise increasing amounts of control overthe content of the interview to obtain essential data for a study. The researcher designs the questions before data collection begins,and the order of the questions is specified. In some cases, the interviewer is allowed to further explain the meaning of the question or modify the way in which the question is asked so that the subject can better understand it. In more structured interviews, the interviewer is required to ask the question precisely as it has been designed. If the subject does not understand the question, the interviewer can only repeat it. The subject may be limited to a range of responses previously developed by the researcher, similar to those in a questionnaire. If the possible responses are lengthy or complex, they may be printed on a card so study participants can review them visually before selecting a response. Qualitative research almost invariably uses interviews
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