Bio Mid Term 1 Study Notes.docx

Phototroph use light to gain energy 5 redox reactions

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Phototroph: use light to gain energy 5. Redox reactions are a relationship between reduction and oxidization reactions. Reduction reactions are when electrons are gained in a reaction in the presence of a reducing agent, whereas oxidization reactions are when electrons are lost in a reaction in the presence of oxidizing agent. These reactions are important in our bodies in order for us to obtain free energy that is required to guide our cellular processes. Oxidizing reactions release large amounts of energy. 6. Metabolic diversity refers to the vastly unique methods that different organisms use to obtain energy. 7. Most bacterial cells contain a cell wall composed of peptidoglycan, they all contain a cell membrane, no nucleus nor organelles, a plasmid (circular strand of DNA), and a nucleoid – a irregular shaped structure that contains most of the bacteria’s genetic information, also contain a capsule which protects them from environmental harm ie. Extreme temp, antibiotics 8. Eukaryotic cell: contains a cytoskeleton, cell membrane, nucleus and nuclear envelope a. Golgi: packages lipids, ions, and large molecules in vesicles to be transported by the ER b. ER: rough’s main function is to synthesize proteins with the use of ribosomes and transport these proteins via vesicles; smooth ER functions to synthesize lipids and to turn toxic substances into more tolerable ones
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c. Cell membrane: controls what enters and exits cells d. Mitochondria: powerhouse of the cell e. Lysosome: membrane bound sac that contains water, nutrients, or enzymes f. Chloroplast: contain the pigment chlorophyll, which absorbs UV light, which allows photosynthesis to occur. 9. Eukaryotic cells are generally larger than bacterial or archaeal cells due to their ability to have multiple organelles and a nucleus. These parts of the cell undergo many chemical reactions and in order to be more efficient, the surface area of the cell must be larger. Because prokaryotic cells do not contain a nucleus nor any organelles, they do not undergo as many chemical reactions and thus it would be needless to have such a large cell. 10.The endoplasmic reticulum produces proteins which are then shipped to the golgi. The golgi complex packages these proteins in vesicles. These vesicles fuse with the cell membrane in a process known as endocytosis then exit the membrane by breaking free from it in a process known as exocytosis. Exocytosis and endocytosis also occurs from substances that are trying to enter the membrane that are too large to fit through the membrane’s spaces. 11.Extra cellular structures: a. Area outside the cell that is composed of various proteins and polysaccharides b. Composes of glycoproteins such as collagen 12.Cytoskeleton a. Composes of cellular membrane, microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments, and endoplasmic membrane b. Function is to provide structure & shape, and assist in cell movement c. 3 major motor proteins: kinesin, dynein, and myosin i. Dynein transports vesicles and organelles that are involved with
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