products and services design innovation, New ideas about the products that how to deliver customers value and satisfaction, Office and factory relocation closer to customers, suppliers, and market, nature of the workforce, technology , economic shocks, completion, social trends, and world politics. C. Resistance to Change Change creates resistance to change in every organization; it is the react response from the side of the old employees. When change strategies have implemented in the organization the employees quickly respond by voicing complaints, engaging in work slowdown, threatening to go on strike, etc. but care should be taken by the change management expert to overcome the resistance. Major force for resistance to change : resistance to change forces categorize into two main heading, 1) individual sources and 2) organizational sources 1). Individual Source Resistance to Change Includes the Following Habit Security Selective information processing, Economic factors and 5
Fear of the unknown 2). Organizational Sources for Resistance to Change Include the Following Limited focus on change Organization structural inertia Threat to expertise Threat to established power relationship Group inertia and Threat to established resource allocation. 3). Overcoming to Resistance to Change Overcoming to resistance to change means to use the tactics to reduce the intensity of the resistance to change, the change agents have the ability to use these tactics are as under:- a) Implementing change fairly. b) Selection people who accept change c) Education and communication d) Participation e) Building support and commitment f) Manipulation and cooptation D. Organizational Change Managing Approaches When change management taken place in the organization, now the question is how best one can manage change. There are four approaches to change management. Lewins classic three step model of change process, Kotters eight step plan, Action research, and Organizational development. According to the Lewin’s change management model , the organization must follow three steps for successful change management, which are. 6
Unfreezing : the status quo, changing to overcome the pressure of both individual resistance and group conformity. Movement ; desire end state, a change process that transforms the organization from the status quo to a desired end state. And Refreezing the new change to make it permanent, stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and restraining forces.  Kotter’s Eight Step Plan. To more elaborate the Lewins’ model; Kotters’ have developed eight steps which can be adopted to implement change. These are 1. Establishment of a perception of necessity 4. Communication about vision of change 6. Generation of short-term gains 8. Institutionalization of new ways of working in the culture Action Research Action research is also a change management approach in which systematically data collected and then change is taken according that data indication.
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