Riors called samurai could establish preeminence over

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International Economics
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Chapter 5 / Exercise 11
International Economics
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riors called samurai, could establish preeminence over the othersb. In 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu seized power and took the title of shogun(military ruler)c. Tokugawa created a hereditary shogu-nate that lasted until 1867d. Tokugawa moved the administrative capital from Kyoto to Edo (modern-day Tokyo)lizing China’s money supply and weak-ening its economy4. The collapse of Ming authoritya. Economic problems hamstrung the government’s ability to cope with natu-ral disasters and food shortages in the early sixteenth centuryb. Several formidable rebellions by the roving bandits took shapei. Rebellion led by the “dashing prince” Li Zicheng captured Bei-jing in 1644; the emperor com-mitted suicideii. Ming commander built an alli-ance with the Manus, a former enemy, to take back the throne 5. The Qing dynasty asserts control
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156Chapter 13Worlds Entangled, 1600–1750powerful state because of territorial expansion and commercial networksi. Muscovite Grand Prince Ivan III married the niece of the last Byz-antine emperor, asserting that Moscow was the center of the Byzantine faithii. In the 1590s, Russians pushed into Siberia and parts of the Pacificc. Security concerns, the ambitions of individuals, and religious conviction inspired the regime to seize territory and expand the empired. After the dynastic chaos following the death of Ivan IV in 1584, the Romanovs, court barons, took over the Kremlin (the medieval walled fortress where the Muscovite grand princes and tsars lived)4. The Romanov dynasty held dynastic power until the twentieth centuryB. Absolutist government and serfdom1. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centu-ries, the Romanovs created an absolute government, with only the tsar and his retinue able to make war, tax, judge, and coin money2. Nobles served as bureaucrats3. Local aristocrats enjoyed nearly unlimited authority in exchange for tribute and loy-alty to the tsar4. Peasants became the serfs of the nobles and tsar, to sustain the crown and the

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