About half of the dinoflagellates are heterotrophs

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About half of the dinoflagellates are heterotrophs Most are predators some are parasites o Algal bloom= free living photosynthetic dinoflagellates or other protists sometimes undergo great increases in population size Can sicken humans and kill aquatic organisms o Bioluminescence= some dinoflagellates exhibit this: they convert ATP energy to light energy 21.7 Cell-Dwelling Apicomplexans Apicomplexans= parasitic alveolates that spend part of their life cycle living inside cells of their hosts. o Complex of microtubules at their apical end that they use to enter a host cell o Sometimes called sporozoans o Malaria is most studied apicomplexan disease o Life cycle Sporozoite travels to liver cells and reproduces asexually Some of resulting cells enter RBC and liver cells where they divide asexually Others develop into immature gametes or gametocytes Mosquito sucking blood from infected person takes up gametocytes that later mature as gametes in its gut 2 gametes fuse== resulting zygote develops into new sporozoite
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o Trypanosomes= the largest subgroup, are parasitic Live in plants and animals Long, tapered cells with an undulating membrane Wavelike motion—single flagellum Biting insects act as vectors for many of these that parasitize humans Euglenoids= flagellated protists closely related to kinetoplastids o Most live in fresh water and none are human pathogens o Tiny predators, few are parasites of larger organisms, and about a third have chloroplasts o Structure of euglenoid chloroplasts and the pigments inside them indicate that
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