Several decades later emory ellis realized that a

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Several Decades later Emory Ellis realized that a Plaque Assay worked both for a Suspension of Bacteriophage and for a Suspension of Phage-Infected Bacteria. This allowed Studies of the Kinetics of the Infection Process.
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Bacteriophage Page 2 1938 The Phage Group • Max Delbrück (Germany) • Salvador Luria (Italy) • Alfred Hershey (US) The Phage Treaty • Unified Research Conditions - T-Phage raised in E. coli Strain B @ 37° C (“Blood Heat”) The Phage Treaty was a tremendous Advance in the study of Bacteriophage. Suddenly everyone was working with T-Phage under the same Conditions. Of course, Researchers not working with T-Phage, or those who had been growing T-Phage in a different Bacterium, were incredibly unamused. Delbrück was extremely influential in establishing the self-confident and inquisitive Tone of Molecular Biology. 1939 The Ellis-Delbrück Experiment • An Overnight Culture of Bacteria was infected with a Bacteriophage • At various Timepoints, the Number of new Bacteriophage released from these Infected Bacteria by Natural Lysis was Measured via Plaque Assay The One-Step Growth Curve • Latent Period (Minute 0-24) - The Time during which no new Phage are Released • Rise Period (Minute 24-36) - Increasing Numbers of Infected Bacteria are Lysing - Increasing Numbers of Progeny Phage are being Released • Burst Period (Minute 36+) - All Infected Bacteria have lysed - All Progeny Phage have been Released The Number of Plaques produced during the Burst Period divided by the Number of Plaques produced during the Latent Period (Background) gives you the Burst Size, or the Average Number of Bacteriphage produced by each Bacterium. Burst Size tends to be around 100 Progeny Phage. • The Ellis-Delbrück Experiment gave a good general Idea about Phage Growth Kinetics. - But what was going on during the Latent Period?
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Bacteriophage Page 3 1948 The Doermann Experiment • An Overnight Culture of Bacteria was infected with a Bacteriophage • At various Timepoints, the Number of new Bacteriophage released from these Infected Bacteria by Artificial Lysis was Measured via Plaque Assay - Artificial Lysis is usually via Chloroform
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