1 ex vero nihil nisi verum si aliqua consequentia est

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1. Ex vero nihil nisi verum... Si aliqua consequentia est bona et antecedens est verum, consequens est verum. 2. Ex falso aliquando verum et aliquando falsum. 3. Ab impossibili sequitur quodlibet. 4. Ex necessario non nisi necessarium. 5. Necessarium sequitur ex quolibet. 6. In omni bona consequentia oppositum consequentis infert op- positum antecedentis. No vale al revés. 7. In omni bona consequentia oppositum consequentis repugnat antecedenti. 79. MUÑOZ, LNS, 253-57, 339-42. 187
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VICENTE MUÑOZ DELGADO 8. Quidquid sequitur ad consequens bone consequentie sequitur ad eius antecedens. 9. Quidquid antecedit ad antecedens antecedit ad eius consequens et quidquid inferí antecedens infert consequens 80 . Son las que más se utilizan para demostrar otras reglas, para refutar o confirmar algunas doctrinas. 3. Reglas fundadas en las propiedades lógicas de los términos. 1. A non ampio ad amplum affirmative, sine distributione ampli, valet argumentum. Bene sequitur: homo est animal, ergo homo est vel fuit animal. 2. Ab ampio ad non amplum, cum distributione ampli et posita constantia non ampli, valet argumentum. Bene sequitur: omne animal potest esse homo et omne animal est, ergo omne animal quod est potest esse homo. 3. Ab ampio ad non amplum negative valet argumentum, sive posita constantia sive non. Bene sequitur: nullum animal potest esse homo, ergo nullum animal est homo. 4. Tenet consequentia a negatione superioris ad negationem infe- rioris, sicut valet, non est animal, ergo non est homo. 5. Hec consequentia est bona: [propositio] est affirmativa, ergo extrema supponnunt pro eodem, sed e converso non valet. 6. Ab appellante proprium conceptum ad non appellantem pro- prium valet argumentum, sed non e converso. Sequitur: cog- nosco hominem, ergo hominem cognosco 81 . 4. Ascensus-descensus. Inducción. 1. Ascensus disiunctivus est consequentia bona et formalis in qua arguitur a singularibus disiunctive enumeratis ad ipsum univer- sale et talis fieri habet super terminum supponentem determí- nate.. Ad bonitatem ascensus disiunctivi negativL.necessaria est 80. TT, 4, 7. Cfr. MUÑOZ, LNS, 262-68. 81. TT, 4v, TS, 21-22. «In illis modis quos aprobavimus intelligatur nisi committatur alius defectus. Numquam valet ab ampio ad amplum sine distri- butione sicut a non ampio ad amplum cum distributione», TS, 21-21v. Cf MUÑOZ, LNS, 269-70. 188
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PEDRO DE ESPINOSA Y LA LÓGICA EN SALAMANCA constantia..Ad bonitatem ascensus disiunctivi affirmativi bene va- let materialiter sine constantia. 2. Ascensus disiunctus est consequentia bona et formalis in qua arguitur a singularibus disiunctim enumeratis ad ipsum univer- sale et talis fieri habet super termino supponenti confuse di- siunctim. 3. Ascensus copulativus est consequentia bona et formalis in qua arguitur a singularibus copulative enumeratis ad ipsum uni- versale et talis fieri habetur super terminum supponentem dis- tributivc.Ad bonitatem descensus copulativi afirmativi necessa- ria est constantia..Descensus copulativi negativi bene valet ma- terialiter sine constantia.
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  • Fall '19
  • The Republic, España, Lógica, Salamanca, Aristoteles, Retórica, Teologia

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