We will limit our study to the carbocation

Info icon This preview shows pages 22–31. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
We will limit our study to the carbocation intermediate . sp2, trigonal planar Empty p orbital Increasing stability
Image of page 22

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Carbocation Stability Alkyl groups: decrease the concentration of positive charge on the carbon and increase the stability of the carbocation .
Image of page 23
Hyperconjugation Stabilizes a Carbocation
Image of page 24

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Bond Making and Bond Breaking Reaction Mechanism Arrows denote the “flow” of electrons from the Nucleophile (Lewis base) to the Electrophile Lewis acid
Image of page 25
Functional Group Transformation Make Notecards for each reaction Learn to recognize the functional group transformation . In this case it is an alkene going to an alkyl chloride HCl (g) ether HCl (g) ether Type:  Hydrohalogenation ? ? Front: Back: ? ? Cl Cl HCl (g) ether HCl (g) ether Cl Cl ? ? HCl (g) ether HCl (g) ether ? ? or Front: Back:
Image of page 26

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Reaction Mechanism Draw Notecards for each reaction mechanism you are expected to learn (see course handouts) The curved arrow notation is used to describe bond making and bond breaking in a mechanism
Image of page 27
How to Draw Curved Arrows
Image of page 28

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions Ignore entropy – G ≈ H Reaction coordinate diagram E act Transition state
Image of page 29
Bond Enthalpy
Image of page 30

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 31
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern