o Logic of safety: revolves around minimizing the risk of losing money on programs. o Consequences: general tendency to avoid controversy, even when it might bring high ratings; Network executives are never sure what audiences will watch or why some programs succeed and others fail. o Televisions pursue this because “nothing succeeds like success” – they keep creating shows that imitate, spin-off, or copies previous shows to reach bizarre proportions. They minimize the risk of losing money on programs. o What are the economic forces that helped to make television “newsmagazines”, “game shows,” and “reality” programming such a prominent part of the network prime-time schedule? o These types of shows are cheaper programming. They have very modest production budgets and are titillating enough to attract significant numbers of viewers. This combination helped make reality contest programs a daily staple on a wide range of national cable television networks. o What is the relationship between advertising and media production? Do advertising benefit media production or hurt it? o Advertisements are played before movies in theaters and on DVDs. Also, product placement within movies is a big business and a subtler way to promote products. Branded entertainment and brand integration link products with media content. (Gatsby) o Advertising benefits media production by providing the bulk of the revenue and generating new media products and appearing in forms of media that once existed without ads. o How did the rise of a commercial press, supported financially by advertising, influence the development of the British and American press in the nineteenth century? What is the relationship between news and advertising today? (page 67) o British: Advertising changed the meaning of economic viability within the newspaper industry. With new resources coming in, the advertiser-supported papers were able to produce papers with more pages, containing both news and ads. This pushed up the cost of producing a competitive newspaper and the cover price of papers dropped dramatically, making it difficult for papers without advertising to compete. Without advertising, several high-circulation, working-class papers ceased publishing because they couldn’t compete. This ended the national radical press in Britain.
Some publications became small-circulation papers and some focused on interests of upper and middle-class audiences, becoming more able to attract advertisers. Newspapers now provided a more limited view of events than before. o American: Advertisements took over news, pushing political based press to commercially based press. Newspapers avoided partisanship and looked upon readers as consumers. A variety of features – sports, fashion, and entertainment – existed to support advertisements.
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