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Rationale 2: In Parkinson's disease (PD), the lack of dopamine production leads to difficulty with movement, tremors, rigidity, and difficulty maintaining posture. It is thought that the disease process results from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors.Rationale 3: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) symptoms first present in an arm in roughly half of the cases, with about 20% of the occurrences affecting a leg.Rationale 4: Slow and insidious in onset, and ranging over a course of 3 to 20 years, Alzheimer's disease progressively degrades cognitive function.Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: AnalyzingClient Need: Physiological IntegrityClient Need Sub: Physiological AdaptationNursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: ImplementationLearning Outcome: 23-1Question 26Type: MCSAThe nurse is conducting an informative session about Alzheimer’s disease (AD) for a local civic group. The nurse shows an understanding of the disorder by providing which information?1. In AD, the central nervous system is unpredictably affected, resulting in a loss of communication and motor skills.2. AD is a form of dementia that is caused by a lack of a brain chemical.3. AD occurs when the person's own immune system attacks the cells of the body.4. AD is a disease process that starts by affecting a person's memory and progresses toward the loss of reasoning abilities.Correct Answer: 4Rationale 1: Multiple sclerosis (MS), not AD, is a disease of the central nervous system that is unpredictable and can leave the patient unable to speak, walk, or write.Rationale 2: AD is not caused by the lack of a chemical in the brain.
Rationale 3: Myasthenia gravis, not AD, is an autoimmune reaction that results from a malfunction in the immune system.Rationale 4: The onset of Alzheimer's disease begins with subtle lapses of memory, which gradually and progressively develop into a chronic loss of personality, recognition, reasoning, and independence.Global Rationale: Cognitive Level: ApplyingClient Need: Physiological IntegrityClient Need Sub: Physiological AdaptationNursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: ImplementationLearning Outcome: 23-1Question 27Type: MCMAThe nurse explains to a patient who has been diagnosed with myasthenia gravis (MG) that this condition differs from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in that MG has which characteristics?Note: Credit will be given only if all correct choices and no incorrect choices are selected.Standard Text: Select all that apply.1. It is usually fatal in 3 to 4 years after onset.2. MG presents with shorter remissions as the disease progresses.3. The onset of MG in women commonly occurs between 20 and 40 years of age.4. Patients experience an increase of symptoms when exposed to sunlight, viral illness, and emotional stress.