He was allowed to travel to Oslo to receive the Nobel Peace Prize in December

He was allowed to travel to oslo to receive the nobel

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He was allowed to travel to Oslo to receive the Nobel Peace Prize in December 1961, an award that Die Transvaler labelled "an inexplicable pathological phenomenon." It was ironic, in fact, that within days after presentation of the award, on a day selected because it was an historic Afrikaner holiday, the ANC embarked on its first campaign of sabotage.The formation of the Federation of South African Women (FEDSAW)After the formation of the Women's League in 1943, women continued to pursue their struggle against apartheid in the 1950s. The formation of ANC Women Leaguewas followed by the establishment of another broader South African women's organisation called the Federation of South African Women (FEDSAW)on 17 April1954 in Johannesburg. The ANCWL, Coloured People's Organisation, and the Transvaal and Natal Indian Congress of Democrats came together to constitute this federation. The FEDSAW founding conference adopted the Women’s Charter. This organisation was the brainchild of Ray Simons, Helen Joseph, Lillian Ngoyi and Amina Chachalia, together formed the steering committee of FEDSAW.The key activities or campaigns in which women became fully involved in the 1950s included the Defiance Campaign of 1952 and the Anti Pass Campaign of 1956. In the 1952 Campaign women confronted the Verwoerd government with the Women's Charter. The Anti-Pass Campaign brought about 20 000 women of all races together in a mass demonstration. On 9 August 1956, women came from all over the country to converge at the Union Buildings in Pretoria to present anti-pass petitions to the Prime Minister, J.G. Strijdom. This demonstration took place after the pass law was extended to all women in the country.There was also forceful removal of people from the western areas of Johannesburg, including Sophiatown; they were moved to black townships in Soweto.The Congress of the People and the Freedom CharterAnother significant event in this decade was the Congress of the People. This was convened on 26 June 1955 at Kliptown where the ANC adopted theFreedom Charterin order to intensify the struggle. The Congress was a very representative gathering. It was attended by 3 000 delegates from different organizations and cut across racial lines. In 1956, 156 leaders of the Congress from around the country were arrested and charged with treason. Involved in
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theTreason Trialthere were 104 Africans, 23 Whites, 21 Indians and 8 Coloureds. The trial became a major political event.Labour strugglesThe struggle was also extended to the labour community but the struggle in this section was crippled by a lack of unity among the working class, which was polarised along racial lines. Although it was initially difficult to organise workers into a multiracial trade union, this was finally achieved in the 1950s when theSouth African Congress of Trade Unions (SACTU)was formed in 1955. The formation of solid trade unions was influenced by the repressive industrial laws like the Native Labour (Settlement of Disputes) Act of 1953 and Industrial Conciliation Act of 1956 passed by the government. In this period SACTU led two major strikes: the £1 a day campaign and the Amato Textile Mills strike
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