Antioxidants such as vitamins c and e carotene

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Antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, carotene, lycopene, lutein and many other substances may play a role in helping to prevent diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease , Alzheimer's disease and macular degeneration 13.Cancer 1. Causes and risk factors (free radicals, carcinogens) a group of related diseases characterized by cells that grow out of control second leading cause of death in the US Tumor masses of immature cells that have no function (aren’t always cancerous) risk factors tobacco use too much sun exposure nutrition environmental/ occupational exposure low levels of physical activity 2. Stages (initiation, promotion, progression) initiation Cell’s DNA is mutated by carcinogens (toxins) promotion mutated cell divides repeatedly progression cancerous cells grow out of control and metastasize (spread) 3. Prevention (antioxidants) antioxidants may work by enhancing the immune system inhibiting the growth of cancer cells preventing oxidation damage to cells reduce inflammation in blood vessels wall and protect against blood clots Vitamin E, K, C Phytochemicals naturally occurring chemicals in plants may reduce risk of cancer, heart disease, and stroke by reducing damage from free radicals found in fruits, veggies, whole grains, nuts, legumes, garlic, soy phytochemicals and cancer prevention exhibit cancer-prevention properties Lycopene (tomato products, red peppers, grapefruit watermelon)
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organosulfur compounds (garlic, onion, broccoli, cauliflower, horseradish) Flavonoids Chapter 13-14 14.Minerals 1. Major minerals – general list (basic requirements in mg.) >100 mg/day potassium sodium chloride calcium (biggest amount needed) magnesium phosphorus sulfur 2. Trace minerals – general list (basic requirements in mg.) <100 mg/day iron zinc fluoride iodine 3. Ultra trace minerals (basic requirements in mg.) minerals that are found in the diet in extremely small quantities (micrograms each day) present in human tissue as well arsenic, boron, nickel, silicon, and vanadium 15.Electrolytes with the help from the kidneys, electrolytes balance the fluid outside of cells with the fluid inside of cells outside of cells sodium, chloride, and calcium inside of cells potassium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate electrolytes are distributed throughout bodily fluids, but are only shown in the fluid compartment where their concentration is the highest attract water 16.Sodium/Chloride 1. basic functions functions for both (they are both extracellular electrolytes) regulating fluid balance regulating blood pressure transmitting nerve impulses contracting muscles helping nutrient transport 2. toxicity risks overconsumption of sodium creates a risk of hypertension
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overconsumption of both increase blood pressure 3. sources processed, packaged, and restaurant foods 4. hypertension blood pressure that is >140/90mmHg major risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke more common in people who consume large amounts of sodium 17.Potassium 1.
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  • Summer '14
  • Energy, Vitamin, fat soluble vitamins

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