DSST Anthropology as a Discipline

Monumental arts flourished in western europe the

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protuberant breasts and exaggerated hips are clearly distinguishable. Monumental arts flourished in western Europe, the province of the so-called Franco-Cantabrian school, where limestone caves provided a sheltered surface for paintings, incised designs, and relief carvings. These caves have preserved much small carving of fine quality and an abundant and varied sample of prehistoric graphic art, from simple finger tracings in clay to sophisticated polychrome paintings, generally depicting animals, of dynamic naturalism and exquisite design. The Paleolithic period was everywhere followed by the Mesolithic , a period when man continued to use stone tools, mostly microlithic, and, while still in the hunting-and-gathering stage, depended less for his food supply on large mammals than on fish and mollusks. In Africa the evidence for the Mesolithic is still scanty. In the Lower Nile Valley, sites have been examined only at Hulwan (Helwan) and Kawm Umbu (Kom Ombo). The existence of modern mud-lined baskets among the Nilotes, the accidental burning of which could have led to the invention of pottery , suggests that it was possibly an African discovery. At the latitude of Khartoum, for a considerable distance to each side of the Nile, have been found sites of a Mesolithic culture in which large, well-fired, unburnished pots decorated with designs impressed with a fish spine to make them resemble baskets were made and barbed bone harpoons were used for fishing. Middle Stone Age is a period of transition of the human from Old Stone Age to New Stone Age. Hunting and the collecting of plants continued to be the main supply of food, but the human began to store the food in containers for later consumption. From the wall paintings, we understand that the artistic qualifications of this period are almost equal to preceding Old Stone Age, and little level of development was achieved--humans were probably busy with the invention of new things to make their lives easier. The Neolithic period or the New Stone Age was the final stage of cultural evolution or technological development among prehistoric humans. The Neolithic period is sometimes referred to as the New Stone Age. It was characterized by stone tools shaped by polishing or grinding, dependence on domesticated plants or animals, settlement in permanent villages, and the appearance of such crafts as pottery and weaving.
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The largest and best preserved remains of a Neolithic settlement exists in Southern Turkey and is called Catal Huyuk. Catal Huyuk was built about 5600 BC and is known for the elaborate frescoes that decorated the walls of buildings depicting scenes of everyday life in the town. The Neolithic followed (came after) the Paleolithic Period, or age of chipped-stone tools, and preceded (came before) the Bronze Age, or early period of metal tools. Neolithic period is to be considered as the beginning of real civilization. The Neolithic stage of development was attained during the Holocene Epoch (the last 10,000 years of Earth history).
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