-Operant – coined by Skinner; voluntary actions operate on the environment to produce change, leading to a specific consequence.-Reinforcer – reward/satisfying effect; no assumptions about judgments being made in the mind of the individual responding.oAnything that increases the probability of response being emitted again in the future.-Primary reinforcers – intrinsic value (essentials).-Secondary reinforcers – reinforcing through previous learning; lead to primary reinforcers.-Operant Chamber – consisted of a mechanism, which an animal could respond to produce a reinforcer.oAllows for shorter trials, no constraints on responding, repeated responses…-Appetitive Stimulus – something that produces satisfaction when received.Shaping & Chaining:17
PSYCH 1F03 – Exam Summary-Shaping by Successive Approximations – used to train a complex response.-Chaining – a response is reinforced with the opportunity to perform the next response.oCan be built leading to a final sequence of behaviours that is complex.Complex Nature of Reinforcement:-Contrast Effects – changes in the value of a reward lead to shifts in response rate.-Negative Contrast – switching from a high to a low reward leads to a slower response rate.-Positive Contrast – switching from a low to a high reward leads to a faster response rate.-Power of a reinforcer depends on: absolute value, relative value compared to past reinforcers. -Overjustification Effect – displays how changes in reinforcement, i.e. Presentationof rewards for behaviours already naturally performed, alter the perception of behaviour.Schedules of Reinforcement:-Continuous Reinforcement Schedule – reinforcer follows every correct response made by the individual.-Partial Reinforcement – reinforcer follows only some of the responses.oMore resistant to extinction. 4 Types of Partial Reinforcement:-Fixed Ratio-Variable Ratio-Fixed Interval-Variable Interval18
PSYCH 1F03 – Exam SummaryPROBLEM SOLVING AND INTELLIGENCE:Intelligence – cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, reason well, remember important information, and cope with the demands of daily living.oA person’s ability to focus on a new task does not tell us about a person’s intelligence.oThe ability to learn from experience and adapt.Problem Solving:Problem solving ability is a relative indicator of intelligence.Deductive Reasoning – ideas/generic information specific conclusions. The use of current knowledge to come to a specific conclusion.Inductive Reasoning – specific facts general theory. Facts to theories, interpreting data.Arch of Knowledge:19
PSYCH 1F03 – Exam SummaryInsight Problem – designed to test your ability to think outside the box.
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