Bring in info from the senses and internal organs Assess process interpret

Bring in info from the senses and internal organs

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- Bring in info from the senses and internal organs - Assess, process, interpret, relay information - Output behaviour General Layout of the Nervous System 1. Central Nervous System - Brain - Spinal Cord 2. Peripheral Nervous System - Located outside of the skull and spine - Serves to bring information into the CNS and carry signals out of the CNS Somatic Nervous System
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Interacts with external environment Bringing info in from the senses and carrying motor output to muscles o Afferent-- sensory to CNS o Efferent-- motor from CNS Autonomic Nervous System Controls the automatic functions of the body Afferent-- sensory from internal organs to CNS Efferent-- motor from CNS to internal organs: 2 kinds o Sympathetic Nervous System: fight or flight response, automatically accelerates heart rate, breathing, dilates pupils, slows down digestion o Parasympathetic Nervous System: automatically slows us down after a stressful event, heart rate and breathing slow down, pupils constrict and digestion speeds up Differences Between Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nerves System - They generally have opposite effects Sympathetic: fight or flight Parasympathetic: rest and relaxation - All are two-stage neural paths Sympathetic: synapse close to spinal cord Parasympathetic: synapse far from spinal cord, close to target organ - Where they exit the spinal cord Sympathetic: thoracic and lumber Parasympathetic: cranial and sacral Cranial Nerves - Most nerves from PNS project from spinal cord but CN projects from brain - Numbered l-Xll, anterior to posterior - Most serve sensory and motor functions of head and neck (except X) - Because of functions and locations specific- can provide clues about tumours and other pathologies - Oh oh oh to touch and feel very good velvet ahhh heaven l- Olfactory nerve smell ll- Optic nerve vision lll- Oculomotor eye movements, control of pupil, lens and tears lV- Trochlear eye movements V- Trigeminal nerve facial sensations and chewing Vl- Abducens eye movements Vll- Facial facial movements, salivary glands, taste Vlll- Vestibulo- Cochlear nerve acoustic branch and vestibular branch IX- Glossopharyngeal throat muscles, salivary glands, taste
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X- Vagus control and sensation of internal thoracic and abdominal viscera such as bronchioles, heart and stomach Xl- Spinal Accessory nerve head and neck muscles Xll- Hypoglossal tongue muscles Protecting the Brain 1. Protection from physical dangers - Skull - Meninges - Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 2. Protection from chemical dangers - Blood-brain barrier - Psychoactive drugs Meninges and CSF - CNS—covered by three meninges and encased in bone (skull or spinal cord) Dura Mater tough outer membrane Arachnoid Membrane weblike Pia Mater adheres to CNS surface - Cerebral Spinal Fluid Fluid serves as cushion Found in: Subarachnoid Space between arachnoid membrane and pia mater Ventricles
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