Atmospheric pressure is produced by the weight of a

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Atmospheric pressure is produced by the weight of a column of air above a unit area of the Earth’s surface. 2. Where is atmospheric pressure greatest? Why? Near the earth’s surface because gravity pulls the atmospheric molecules towards the surface. 3. Average sea-level pressure is 1013.25 mb. ( True / False) 4. An aneroid barometer measures atmospheric pressure in inches of mercury. (True / False ) 5. Describe the relationship between atmospheric pressure and density. With increasing altitude, both pressure and density decrease. At the surface, the pressure of the atmospheric compresses the air molecules into a certain volume. The mass is called the density. As the number of air molecules increases, so does the mass and vice versa. With decreased air pressure, there is less force exerted on the air molecules, hence they decompress, or spread out, resulting in a decrease in air density. Higher density, higher pressure 6. Describe the relationship between atmospheric pressure and air temperature. Cold air is composed of relatively slow-moving gas molecules packed closely together low temperature, high density, high pressure Warm air is composed of gas molecules with abundant kinetic energy so they are widely space high temperature, low density, low pressure Higher temperature, lower pressure 7. Describe the relationship between atmospheric pressure and altitude. Atmospheric pressure decreases rapidly with altitude near the surface Less and less atmosphere exerting force less air molecules Near the surface, pressure decreases rapidly but slows down at higher altitudes 8. ______ Wind _____ is the horizontal movement of air across the Earth’s surface. 9. Wind is measured with a direction and speed. ( True / False) 10. A west wind is coming from the west and blowing toward the east. ( True / False)
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11. List the four (4) forces that can affect wind’s speed and direction. Pressure Gradient Force, Coriolis Force, Centrifugal Force, Frictional Force 12. _____ Isobars ______ are lines of constant pressure. 13. What is pressure gradient? Describe how changes in pressure gradient (i.e. weak vs. strong pressure gradient) affects pressure gradient force (PGF). Pressure gradient is the change of atmospheric pressure along a line at right angles to isobars. More tightly packed isobars higher pressure gradient higher winds. Pressure gradient force will push air from high pressure to low pressure, resulting in wind. 14. Winds are strongest when pressure gradient and PGF are both weak. (True / False ) 15. ______ Local Winds _____ are created when thermal differences create changes in pressure altering air flow. 16. Compare and contrast sea breezes and land breezes. Sea breeze: during the day, the land warms the air above its surface. This warm air moves oceanward aloft, while surface winds bring cool marine air landward at the surface, creating a thermal circulation.
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  • Fall '12
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