2 high cost of heating ventilating and cleaning of

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2. High cost of heating, ventilating and cleaning of windows. 3. High cost of transportation for moving men and materials to the factory 2. MULTI-STOREY BUILDINGS Multi-storey buildings are useful in manufacture of light products, when the acquisition of land becomes difficult and expensive. Advantages 1. Maximum operating floor space. This is best suited in areas where land is very costly. 2. Lower cost of heating and ventilation. 3. Reduced cost of materials handling because the advantage of the use of gravity for the flow of materials. Limitations Following are the disadvantages of multi-storey building: 1. Materials handling becomes very complicated. A lot of time is wasted in moving them between floors. 2. A lot of floor space is wasted on elevators, stairways and fire escapes. 3. Floor load-bearing capacity is limited. 4. Natural lighting is poor in the centres of the shop. 5. Layout changes cannot be effected easily and quickly. Generally speaking, textile mills, food industries, detergent plants, chemical industries and software industry use these types of buildings. 8.3.3.2 Lighting Good visibility of the equipment, the product and the data involved in the work process is an unavoidable factor in accelerating production, reducing the number of defective products and reducing waste. The use of natural light should be encouraged. Regular cleaning of lighting fixture is obviously essential. Excessive contrasts in lighting levels between the worker’s task and the general surroundings should also be avoided. Artificial lighting will enable people to maintain proper vision. 8.3.3.3 Climatic Conditions Control of the climatic conditions at the workplace is important to ensure the workers’ health and comfort. With excess heat or cold, wor kers may feel very uncomfortable, and their efficiency drops. This can also lead to accidents. This human body functions in such a way as to keep the central nervous system and the
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102 internal organs at a constant temperature. It is essential to avoid excessive heat or cold, and wherever possible to keep the climatic conditions under control within the organisation. 8.3.3.4 Ventilation Ventilation is an integral part of the good building system. Ventilation differs from air circulation. Ventilation replaces contaminated air by fresh air, whereas as the air-circulation merely moves the air without renewing it. Where the air temperature and humidity are high, merely to circulate the air is not only ineffective but also increases heat .Therefore, proper steps have to be taken to ensure the ventilation facility. 8.3.3.5 Work-Related Welfare Facilities Work-related welfare facilities include basically drinking-water and toilets facilities. Others may seem less necessary, but usually have an importance to workers. The planners of the factory building have to see that the organization has enough work related facilities for its employees. It is made mandatory in the Factories Act.
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