Glencoe Health 2005.pdf

To stay healthy eat 20 to 35 grams of fiber each day

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To stay healthy, eat 20 to 35 grams of fiber each day. Fruits and vegetables with edible skins and whole-grain products such as bran cereals, oatmeal, and brown rice are excellent sources of fiber. Fiber
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Proteins A vital part of every cell in your body, are nutrients that help build and maintain body cells and tissues. Proteins are made of long chains of substances called amino acids. Your body can manufacture all but 9 of the 20 different amino acids that make up proteins. The 9 that your body can’t make are called essential amino acids —you must get them from the foods you eat. Complete and Incomplete Proteins The proteins in food are classified into two groups, complete proteins and incomplete proteins. Complete proteins contain adequate amounts of all nine essential amino acids. Animal products—such as fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and yogurt—and many soybean products are good sources of complete proteins. Incomplete proteins lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Sources include beans, peas, nuts, and whole grains. Con- suming a combination of incomplete proteins, for example, rice and beans or peanut butter and bread, is equivalent to consum- ing a complete protein. You don’t have to combine the incom- plete proteins in one meal to get this benefit, you just need to eat them both over the course of the day. The Role of Proteins Proteins have many functions. During major growth periods, such as infancy, childhood, adolescence, and pregnancy, the body builds new cells and tissues from the amino acids in proteins. Throughout your life your body replaces damaged or worn-out cells by making new ones from protein. The body also uses protein to make enzymes, hormones, and antibodies. Enzymes are substances that control the rate of chemical reactions in your cells. Hormones regulate the activities of different cells, and antibodies help identify and destroy disease-causing organisms. Proteins also supply the body with energy, although they are not the body’s main energy source. Like carbohydrates, proteins provide four calories per gram and excess protein is converted to body fat. proteins 116 Chapter 5 Nutrition and Your Health Each of these foods is a good source of protein. Which of these foods contain complete proteins? Which contain incomplete proteins?
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Fats ome fat in the diet is necessary for good health. Fats are a type S of (LIHP ehd), a fatty substance that does not dissolve in water. Fats provide more than twice the energy of carbohydrates or proteins—9 calories per gram. The building blocks of fats are called fatty acids, molecules made mostly of long chains of carbon atoms, with pairs of hydrogen atoms and single oxygen atoms attached. Fatty acids that the body needs, but cannot produce, are called essential fatty acids. Depending on their chemical composition, fatty acids are classified as either sat- urated or unsaturated. Most fats are a mixture of these two types.
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