Ch.5 Concepts Questions.docx

During the summer monsoon prominent onshore winds

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During the summer monsoon, prominent onshore winds spiral in from the Indian Ocean, bringing life-giving rains to the parched subcontinent. In winter, South Asia is dominated by out blowing dry air diverging from the northeast. Localized Wind Systems 25. Explain the origin of sea breezes and land breezes . A common local wind system along tropical coastlines, and to a lesser extent during the summer in midlatitude coastal areas. Sea breeze during the day and land breeze at night. 26. In what ways are sea breezes and land breezes similar to valley breezes and mountain breezes ? Valley breeze - The warmed air rises, creating a low-pressure area, and then air from the valley floor flows upslope from the high-pressure area to the low-pressure area. Mountain breeze – the mountain slopes lose warmth rapidly through radiation, which chills the adjacent air, causing it to slip downslope. 27. What is a katabatic wind , and where are such winds commonly found? Related to simple air drainage is the more general and powerful spilling of air downslope. These winds originate in cold upland areas and cascade toward lower elevations under the influence of gravity. 28. In what ways are Santa Ana winds similar to foehn and chinook winds? Santa Ana winds, develop when a cell of high pressure persists over the interior of the western United States for several days. Foehn and Chinook winds originates when a steep pressure gradient develops with high pressure on the windward side of the mountain and low-pressure trough on the leeward side.
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El Niño–Southern Oscillation 29. What is the Walker Circulation ? A conceptual model of the air flow in the tropics in the lower atmosphere. 30. Why is El Niño commonly referred to as El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ? Meteorologist recognized a connection between Walker’s Southern Oscillation and the occurrence of strong El Niño warming near South America. 31. Contrast the oceanic and atmospheric conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean basin during an El Niño event with those of the normal pattern. The usual high pressure in the subtropics has weakened. Upwelling no longer brings cold water to the surface, so ocean temperature increases still further – an El Niño is underway. By this time, the trade winds have weakened or even reversed directions and start to flow from the west – blowing moist air into the desert of coastal Peru. 32. Contrast the oceanic and atmospheric conditions during an El Niño event with those of a La Niña event. El Niño and La Niña conditions are generally identified by sea-surface temperatures trends; sometimes El Niño is referred to as the “warm” phase of ENSO while La Niña is said to be “cold” phase. 33. What are teleconnections ? Coupling of weather and oceanic events in one part of the world with those in another are termed teleconnections.
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