Introduction to Wind Turbine.pdf

Horizontal axis wind turbines hawt horizontal axis

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Horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) Horizontal-axis wind turbines consist of a two- or three-bladed rotor turning a horizontal shaft. The shaft is connected to a gear box and a generator. The generator converts the rotational (mechanical) energy into electrical energy. The rotor and generator are mounted at the top of a tower. Figure 1 for example, shows two types of horizontal-axis wind turbines: upwind and downwind. Figure 1. Typical horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT). The amount of electrical power produced by the generator is primarily determined by the factors below: The speed of wind. The faster the wind speed , the higher the generated electrical power. Rotor blade Wind Wind Nacelle Yaw control mechanism Tower Gear box and generator (a) Upwind HAWT (b) Downwind HAWT
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Introduction – Wind Turbines Discussion of Fundamentals Introduction to Wind Power 3 The diameter and shape of the rotor blades. The wider the diameter of the blades and the higher the rotor efficiency coefficient, C P (determined mainly by the shape of the rotor blades), the higher the generated electrical power. The height of the tower. The wind speed increases at higher altitudes, therefore, taller towers can catch more powerful wind and allow more electrical power to be generated. Upwind turbines Upwind turbines face the wind, as Figure 1a shows. In this way, the wind hits the blades before it hits the tower. Most modern turbines have this design. The main advantage of upwind turbines is that their operation is smoother and they can deliver more electrical power (and thus, more electrical energy) than downwind turbines. The main drawback of upwind turbines is that they require a mechanism to control the yaw (left-right motion), since the force of the wind tends to make the blades turn downwind. The yaw control mechanism automatically adjusts the azimuthal orientation of the wind turbine nacelle in order to keep the blades facing into the wind.
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