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source against which we seek refuge and toward which we address ourselves. Like Kafka's beast, language now listens from the bottom of its burrow to this inevitable and growing noise. To defenditself,it must follow its movements, become its loyal enemy, and allow nothing to stand between them except the contradictory thinness of a transparent and unbreakable partition From this moment,awork whose only meaning resides in its being a self-enclosed expression of its gloryisno longer possible. The date of this transformation is roughly indicated by the simul-taneous appearance at the end of the eighteenth century of the works of Sade and the tales of terror. It is not their common predilection for cruelty which concerns us here; nor is it the discovery of the link between literature and evil; but some-thing more obscure and paradoxical at first sight: these languages which are con-stantly drawn out of themselves by the overwhelming, the unspeakable, by thrills, stupefaction, ecstasy, dumbness, pure violence, wordless gestures, and which are calculated with the greatest economy and precision to produce effects (so that they make themselves as transparent as possible at this limit of language toward which they hurry, erasing themselves in their writing for the exclusive sovereignty of that which they wish to say and which lies outside of words)—these languages very strangely represent themselves in a slow, meticulous, and infinitely extended cer-emony. These simple languages, which name and give one to see, are curiously double. (60-61) Foucault goes on to discuss the unreadability ofSade'snovels, while conversely the Gothic novels were precisely designed to be read, indeed were read, he claims, by every-one who could read. One Gothic text,Coelina,or The Child of Mystery(1798), is said to have sold 1.2 million copies from 1798 to 1814, a number that Foucault claimsisequal to the total number of literate individuals in France.
Notes to Chapter7205 23.Seeinter alia Gould,EversinceDarwin:ReflectionsinNaturalHistory,andTime's Arrow,Time'sCyde. 24.Up to themiddleofthe eighteenth century, there appearstohave beena ten-dency to minimizethedegreetowhichanyform of change actually occurred:theideal wasto presentasteady-state visioninwhich tokens changedbuttypes remained asfaras possible thesame.Inbiologyitwas presumed that the organisms God formedonthe fifth andsixth days of creation were all still with us, whileinpoliticsthemagistrates werede-scended from exemplars—kings, counselors, judges—tobefoundinclassical and biblical literature. Nevertheless,by themid-eighteenth centurythenotion of slow, steady,pro-gressive changecan befoundintexts suchasPope'sEssayon Man,andcatastrophic change in texts like Vico'sScienzanuova. 25.Hayden White, who is giventoclassifying historians according to their dominant tropes, considers Foucault'sto be thecatachresis(orplayonwords); Foucault considers languageto becatachreticbynature, since any signifier referstomore than one signified, and no two signifieds can be identicalin