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act of urination is the bodies’ way of ridding itself of any potential bacterial invaders. In women, the sexual activity potentially introduces bacteria in close proximity to the urethral meatus. In pregnancy, the urethral meatus ispushed downward closer to the GI tract further increasing the risk of UTI development (Mulryan, C, 2011). Uncomplicated UTI is frequent in adult women, with incidence peaks in the 15 to 39-year age bracket due to sexual and reproductive activity during this time (Lema, 2015).Similarities and Differences Between Lower and Upper UTIUpper (UTI) involves the kidneys. Lower (UTI) consists of the bladder, prostate, and urethra. In upper UTI’s patients usually have flank pain, fever,chills, nausea, and vomiting; in lower UTI’s patients will present with burning during urination, urinary frequency, foul odor, dark urine sometimes with blood, and pelvic pain in women and rectal pain in men (Hammer, & McPhee, 2014). Clinical symptoms such as flank pain, dysuria, and frequent voiding may be seen in both upper and lower (UTI). Upper
UTIs are treated with IV antibiotics, and lower UTIs are treated with the administration of oral antibiotics (Huether & McCance, 2017). Diagnosis and Treatment for Lower UTIDiagnosis of lower UTI’s requires a urine culture of specific counts with greater than 10,000/ml in freshly voided urine (Huether & McCance, 2017). Patients should be treated with antibiotics with organism-specific sensitivity(Huether & McCance, 2017). Urine cultures should be repeated after antibiotic therapy to ensure the absence of bacteria. Diagnosis and Treatment for Upper UTIUpper UTIs are diagnosed via urine culture, urinalysis, and clinical signs and symptoms (Huether & McCance, 2017). Complicated pyelonephritis