Do fetuses have different personalities? Does a mother’s stress affect her fetus?
● Experiment: 1996 DiPietro recorded heart rate and movements 6x before birth and twice after: - Irregular sleep/wake patterns → sleep more poorly - Active in womb → irritable - Higher heart rates → unpredictable, inactive ● Because of hormonal bathing: chronobiological rhythms are influenced by sleep/wake cycles, eating patterns and movements - Under a lot of pressure leads to more active fetuses and irritable infants ● Poor women: less active, slower heart rate because of less stress and inadequate nutrition/exposure to pollutants ● Environment of the womb → intelligence - More vital than just genes affecting IQ 12-B Research Methods over Lifetime What is the difference between cross-sectional and longitudinal designs? Cross-sectional: Includes people from two different cohorts and comparing the two Disadvantages : confounding factors, aka historical differences. Since they’ve had different experiences the have confounding independent variables and it’s hard to tell whether the difference roots from age or difference in past experiences. Longitudinal: Follows one cohort over a long period of time, and compares time period #1 with time period #2 Disadvantages : attrition: you can lose some people along the way. The people who show up for the re-test are not representative of the whole sample. d What is a cohort? How do different cohorts present problems in research? Do they affect cross-sectional or longitudinal designs most? Cohort: population of individuals born during the same historical period Examples: - The Baby Boomers (1946-1964) one of the largest cohorts in history - Differences between veterans in different periods (WWII, Iraq, Korea, etc) Different cohorts present problems in research; Affects - Confounding factors - different experiences (cross sectional design affected) - Attrition - some of the sample is lost along the way (longitudinal design affected) What is attrition? Does it affect cross-sectional or longitudinal designs more? Attrition is when less people are represented in a study at the end of the study, therefore the people who are measured in the end are not representative of the entire sample. This problem occurs in longitudinal designs mostly, because over a long period of time people can die off or develop health problems that prevent them from having answers consistent to the study. 12-C Research Methods in Cognitive Development Why do researchers study infants and children using different methods than adults? ● A lot of cognition measuring for adults is done by filling out questionnaires about preferences
● This obviously can’t be done for little kids so scientists have to do more hands on things, physical experiments What does looking time (gazing behavior) tell us about cognition? How do researchers use looking time to measure cognition?
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