A lot of the music includes vocal with instrumentaloDifference between this and Hindustani:Lower voiceA lot more vocal ornamentationoSimilarities:Hindustani and dance: videooSitar and tabla distinct identifiers for HindustaniCarnatic Dance-Music: videooDevadasi: lower class women. non-Brahmin (Brahmin = upper caste)Married to the deity, performed in temples
Bhava = moodRava = musicta*** = Feminist theory:o18th century: Mary WollstonecraftKnown for philosophizing about women and role in societyo19th century: Jane AustenAddressing everyday women’s woesJosephine Butler: spoke up for prostitutes in mid-19th centuryoFirst-wave feminismLate 19th to early 20th centuriesAbolitionary, suffrage periodsoSecond-wave feminism1970sAnn OakleyClarified argument of gender as a constructionOakley: there’s a difference between biological sex and socialized genderSex: biological termGender: psychological and cultural termCultural definitions of gender often vary depending on the cultureLiberation movements and Civil Rights movements still going on at timeCritique: used a framework of gender to talk about two different topicsArguing for cultural construction of gender, but also arguing that because of cultural constructs, there are gender inequalitiesCritique: Lynne Segal1990s: wrote that feminism is also a failure to recognize how women and men already inserted in other contexts like race, age, sexual orientationoThird-wave feminism1990sDefinitions of ‘female’ and ‘femininity’Arguments made based on white middle/upper class womenArgue that not every culture conceives of feminine/female/differencesof biological sex in the same wayGendering the Voice in IndiaoWeidmann: ‘respectable woman’s voice’Ideal woman’s voice = disembodied oneDisconnected, representing more than it actually does
The voice started to have life of its own outside the bodyGood at time, because of fear that woman’s body could be unchasteIdeal woman at time: chaste, with small movementsVoice separated from body to become the ideal standard, body has to fit into this new idealarticle: voice vs. agencyHow physical voice has been used to eskew agency for South Indian womenM.S.: husband wanted to make her the sound of ideal woman’s voiceGot jealous when she got lots of attentionoAlaghband-ZadehTakes different genres of music, puts it on a line“More classical, masculine” vs. “less classical, feminine”Gender and Hindustani music:Classical music more associated with menCertain genres more feminine than others, but also less classicalFor woman to be able to play “famously”, has to become more “masculine” and perform classical, risk alienationMen have an easier time moving through genresOrnamentation:Men doing ornamentation in way it’s considering musically genius, he’s recognized as geniusButler: see standard for what woman’s supposed to act like
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