28 selected results are shown in figure 3 and figure

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28 Selected results are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4. In general, there was good correlation in the costs between the two models. The tank costs varied the most, due to the different kinds of tanks used in both processes. The USDA°s experience in the corn industry showed that a factor of 3.0 was reasonable for going from purchased equipment costs to total project investment, while NREL°s installation costing method produced a factor of 2.5, so 2.75 was used for both processes. Figure 3. Comparison of starch and lignocellulose process stainless steel tank cost y = 27.153x 0.2497 R 2 = 0.6326 y = 7.1543x 0.4934 R 2 = 0.9827 $1 $10 $100 $1,000 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 Tank Volume (1000L) SS Tank Cost (M$) NREL USDA NREL USDA
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14 Figure 4. Comparison of starch and lignocellulose process heat exchanger cost IV.2.3 Variable Operating Costs Variable operating costs, such as chemical costs used in both processes, were generally taken from the Chemical Marketing Reporter. Denaturant cost came from DOE°s Energy Information Administration. 29 Chemicals particular to each process, such as enzymes for the starch process or wastewater treatment chemicals, were not changed. Feedstock costs were $1.94 per bushel for corn, and $35 per dry ton for stover. Electricity was assumed to have the same cost and credit, $0.04 per kilowatt-hour (kWh). The starch process purchases electricity, while the stover process produces excess, which is considered a saleable by-product. IV.2.4 Labor, Supplies, and Overhead Labor, supplies, and overhead (sometimes termed fixed operating costs) were normalized based on several references, including recent subcontract work through DOE, ²Building a Bridge to the Corn Ethanol Industry.³ 1,2,3 Most notably, two separate engineering firms suggested a ratio of one maintenance person for every two to three operators. Operating and maintenance supplies, overhead and taxes, and insurance were calculated based on literature references. 30,31,32 No state or federal tax credits, nor small producer credits or incentives were assumed for either process. y = 0.3781x 0.6368 R 2 = 0.979 y = 0.671x 0.5782 R 2 = 0.9072 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 Heat Transfer Area (sq.ft.) Heat Exchanger Cost (M$) NREL USDA NREL USDA
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15 V Changes Required in the Process Models USDA-ARS or NREL staff made specific changes to the corn starch or lignocellulose model, respectively. Joint review of the models allowed the participants to provide input to both models, which resulted in a better understanding for all involved and models that were easy to use and understand. V.1 Starch Model V.1.1 Changes Made to the Starch Model and Other Work 1) Production capacity was normalized at 25 million annual gallons of fuel ethanol. The original USDA model addressed a facility with a production capacity of 15 million annual gallons. 2) The costs of raw material and chemicals, where applicable, were put on the same basis for both facilities. Yeast, urea, and enzymes are examples of purchased raw materials unique to the starch process.
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  • Spring '10
  • BLANCHE
  • The Land, ........., corn ethanol industry

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