Checks and Balances – A constitutionally mandated structure that gives each of the 3 branches of government some degree of oversight and control over the actions of the others. Federalism Federal system – System of government in which the national government and state governments share power but national is overall supreme and both derive all authority from the people. Later, the passage of the 10thAmendment stated that powers not given to the national government were reserved by the states or the people, further clarified the federal structure. Separation of Powers 3 distinct branches of Government: Legislative, Executive, and Judicial 3 Separately staffed branches of government to exercise these functions. Constitutional equality and independence of each branch.Legislative – Makes Laws Executive – Enforces LawsJudicial – Interprets Laws Members of House of Reps, members of the Senate, the president, and members of the federal courts were selected by, and therefore responsible to different constituencies. However, 17thAmendment ratified in 1913 called for direct election of senators by the voters, which made them directly accountable to the people and the system thereby more democratic.
In Article I of constitution, the legislative power is vested in Congress, but president also has a role in the legislative process; in order for a bill to become law, he must sign the legislation.If he disagrees with the content of a bill, he may also veto the legislation, although a two-thirds vote in Congress can override his veto. Checks and Balances The creation of this system allowed the framers to prevent U.S. of tyranny from any one branch. Thus, for almost every power granted to one branch, the Framers established an equal control in the other two branches. The Structure of the Constitution Document finally signed by the Framers condensed numerous resolutions into a Preamble and seven separate articles remedying many of the deficiencies within the Articles of Confederation. First three articles established the three branches of government, defined their internal operations, and clarified their relationships with one another. The 4 remaining articles definethe relationships between the states, declare national law to be supreme, and set out methods of amending and ratifying the Constitution.Comparison chart of Articles of Confederation and Constitution Table 2.1Article I: The Legislative BranchEnumerated Powers – Article I section 8 of the constitution specifically states these powers contain many key provisions that had been denied to the Continental Congress under the Articles of Confederation. For ex, one major weakness was Congress’s lack of authority to deal with trade wars, thanks to Constitution now it can as well as raise money.
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- Fall '08